European Civilization – Iain Abrach http://iainabrach.org/ Sat, 25 Sep 2021 08:23:18 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=5.8 https://iainabrach.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/04/default1-150x150.png European Civilization – Iain Abrach http://iainabrach.org/ 32 32 Thinker and poet C Subramania Bharati’s response to linguistic elitism imposed by the British-Art-and-culture News, Firstpost https://iainabrach.org/2021/09/25/thinker-and-poet-c-subramania-bharatis-response-to-linguistic-elitism-imposed-by-the-british-art-and-culture-news-firstpost/ https://iainabrach.org/2021/09/25/thinker-and-poet-c-subramania-bharatis-response-to-linguistic-elitism-imposed-by-the-british-art-and-culture-news-firstpost/#respond Sat, 25 Sep 2021 03:18:17 +0000 https://iainabrach.org/2021/09/25/thinker-and-poet-c-subramania-bharatis-response-to-linguistic-elitism-imposed-by-the-british-art-and-culture-news-firstpost/ With his usual foresight, Bharati argues that promoting the teaching of English to the detriment of Indian national languages ​​would spell the end of their future. Subramania Bharati was a polyglot who wrote brilliantly in several languages, including English. In fact, as a poet at heart, he loved and respected the English language, which he […]]]>

With his usual foresight, Bharati argues that promoting the teaching of English to the detriment of Indian national languages ​​would spell the end of their future.

Subramania Bharati was a polyglot who wrote brilliantly in several languages, including English. In fact, as a poet at heart, he loved and respected the English language, which he regarded not primarily as the language of the oppressors of India, but as the language of the literary geniuses of England – the Romantic poet Percy Bysshe Shelley in the lead, and, from Bharati’s perspective, a soul mate. They were writers to admire and to imitate.

But his attitude of reverence for poetry and respect for the language was severely tested by the British policy of the day towards what the British government dared to call India’s “vernacular” languages ​​- the diverse and distinguished literary languages ​​of the Indian people throughout the subcontinent.

Vernacular, indeed! Bharati hated this term. This reduced his mother tongue, Tamil, the language of the last classical civilization in the world, to a simple popular language spoken by an oppressed people. According to the British, it was clearly outdated. Neither Tamil nor any of India’s “vernacular” languages ​​could suit, they claimed, a modern society based on science and reason! If Indians really wanted to improve, they should be educated in English.

To respond to these outrageous and discriminatory demands, Bharati, metaphorically speaking, rises to his full stature as a poet and polyglot, Tamil and Indian and humanist.

“I do not blame the Madras’ Indian Education Council ‘for its anxiety to have Professor Geddes’ opinions on the subject of the use of Indian languages ​​as a medium of instruction in

Indian schools, ”he wrote, calling the famous Scottish thinker“ good and learned ”. “Because I am aware that men’s thoughts are generally shaped by their environment. “

Bharati can draw on his extraordinary breadth of reading in Indian languages, including Sanskrit and Hindi, to comment:

“But I think it’s high time to remind all parties involved in discussions like this, that most Indian languages ​​have great, historical and living literatures. Of course, their luster has been slightly tarnished by economic conditions over the past few days. “

Thinker and poet C Subramania Bharatis response to imposed British linguistic elitism Thinker and poet C Subramania Bharatis response to imposed British linguistic elitism

Sadly, the presence of the British and the demeaning effect of colonial oppression on the Indian psyche had already had a powerful impact. Bharati is deeply concerned about this and demands what was then unthinkable. Indians and their languages ​​should be respected and treated equally, at least by the English – and, above all, by the Indian elite. He writes:

“We can forgive the English-educated minority in this country for being horribly ignorant of the higher phases of our national literatures; but they would do well to give up that annoying attitude of patronage and condescension when they write and speak our languages. The Tamil language, for example, has a living philosophical and poetic literature which is far more grandiose, in my opinion, than that of the “vernacular” of England.

And here, the polyglot reading of Bharati as well as his writing allows him to make a comparison that has not yet been fully explored in the study of comparative literature:

“Besides, I don’t think any modern vernacular in Europe can boast of works like the Kural by Valluvar, the Ramayana by Kamban and the Silappadhikaram (” The epic of the ankle “) by Ilango. . And it may be worth adding that I have read and enjoyed the exquisite beauties of Shelley and Victor Hugo in the original “vernaculars” in English and French, and of Goethe in the English translations.

In our post-colonial reality, it is essential to understand how and why Bharati defended the Tamil language at a time when Indian languages ​​were in decline due to the British colonial administration in India. With his usual foresight, Bharati saw that promoting the teaching of English to the detriment of India’s national languages ​​would spell the end of their future. The younger generation would grow up easily in their mother tongue. They would be dispossessed of their mother tongue, of their legitimate heritage, while English would take the place of these languages ​​in their minds and their lives. The longer-term consequences would be dramatic – the disappearance not only of national languages ​​as a means of education, but also of the ways of life, traditions, culture and knowledge rooted in these languages.

Thinker and poet C Subramania Bharatis response to imposed British linguistic elitism

Chellamma with her daughters and grandchildren; S. Vijaya Bharati is seated in the front right

Thinker and poet C Subramania Bharatis response to imposed British linguistic elitism

Bharati family with Chellamma, Thangammal, Shakuntala and two of Bharati’s disciples

To argue against this tendency, Bharati relied on his extensive knowledge of Tamil literature. He described the achievements of Tamils ​​and called for the study of these literary achievements alongside those of European writers. His goal was never chauvinistic – he just wanted Tamil to take its place among the great literary traditions of the world without threatening the achievements of other cultures. Indeed, based on his reading, he believed that Tamil should be rightly recognized as a “mother” tradition for humanity as a whole, due to its antiquity, continuity and literary stature. The need for a firm stand was evident.

From today’s perspective, it may seem that Bharati’s position is outdated. English is dominant overall – the battle seems to have been lost. Indeed, by appropriate irony, the Indian affinity for the English language is often cited as one of the reasons India has become a global economic and cultural powerhouse today. But Bharati was a visionary who saw well ahead of his time. In fact, his arguments for preserving and promoting Tamil – and with it, the linguistic diversity of India and the world – are more relevant than ever. Yet they have never been really explored. Instead, they were sidelined due to the ubiquitous presence of “business English”.

Reading Bharati’s words, written in such eloquent English, should give us pause. As Bharati’s literary legacy enters its one hundred and first year, his writings offer us a new opportunity to reflect on our own identity and ask the crucial question of whether we have truly achieved equality in this postcolonial world. Meanwhile, the world’s languages ​​and cultures are rapidly disappearing and climate change threatens humanity as a whole. These changes seem to be the direct result of living in a world defined by colonial values ​​that were never completely overcome. The world seems to have lost sight of cultural diversity just when we need it most – when new ways of thinking are needed to overcome the significant challenges that lie ahead. Valuable ideas are ingrained in our languages: Bharati tells us that. Taking an interest in our “mother tongues” and making the effort to learn languages ​​and read, could be an important part of these efforts. Bharati helps us out, giving us a tantalizing glimpse of what it means to be a Tamil today. In doing so, he shows the way to rediscover the hidden treasures that are buried in us and in our collective past. It is a powerful lesson for Tamils, Indians and the world.

– All images are courtesy of the author

Mira T. Sundara Rajan is the editor of The Coming Age, a collection of original Bharati writings in English, published by Penguin Modern Classics, and the creator of an accompanying podcast, “Bharati 100”.


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The history of printing: celebrating the written word https://iainabrach.org/2021/09/24/the-history-of-printing-celebrating-the-written-word/ https://iainabrach.org/2021/09/24/the-history-of-printing-celebrating-the-written-word/#respond Fri, 24 Sep 2021 16:59:57 +0000 https://iainabrach.org/2021/09/24/the-history-of-printing-celebrating-the-written-word/ The story of a printing museum created by a regional newspaper in Greece that celebrates the ancient tradition of writing and typography The country of Greece, located in the southeastern corner of Europe, is a nation with thousands of islands, large and small, dotting the seas that surround the continent. With a coastline twice as […]]]>

The story of a printing museum created by a regional newspaper in Greece that celebrates the ancient tradition of writing and typography

The country of Greece, located in the southeastern corner of Europe, is a nation with thousands of islands, large and small, dotting the seas that surround the continent. With a coastline twice as long as that of India but twenty-five times smaller, Greece has a dynamic maritime culture carried by its islands. Greece’s long history rivals those of other ancient cultures such as Egypt, Mesopotamia, China, and India. With iconic figures from Alexander and Aristotle to Plato and Ptolemy, the idea of ​​Greek civilization continues to dominate the Age of Antiquities.

However, the discovery of the Minoan civilization in the 1890s eclipsed Greek civilization for many reasons. Based on the island of Crete, the largest island in Greece, it was perhaps the first advanced civilization in Europe, predating mainland Greece by over a thousand years. Its antiquity dates back to 2700 BCE. It thrived for over 1,300 years before a combination of natural disasters and conquest of mainland Greece led to its collapse around 1420 BCE. Perhaps the most important discovery during the excavation of the ancient remains of Crete was a large number of clay tablets which were inscribed in two scripts. They were quickly recognized as the oldest writing systems in Europe and named Linear A and Linear B. While Linear B writing was finally deciphered after fifty years of study by many scholars and came to be. proven to be written in a very ancient form of the Greek language, Linear A, like the Indus Valley Seals, is still an undeciphered code.

Disc of Phaistos, circa 1700 BCE

The first example of typography that has been discovered so far also comes from the island of Crete. It is a circular disc that has been dated to around 1700 BCE when the Minoan civilization was at its peak. With a diameter of about 15 cm and a thickness of 1 cm, the Phaistos disk is made of fired clay and is printed with symbols or characters arranged in a spiral on both sides. Punches on which the symbols were carved or cast were imprinted on the soft clay to create an imprint. The same hallmark was used to create a symbol multiple times on the disc, making it one of the earliest representations of letterpress. From the point of view of printing and typography, the discovery of the Phaistos Disc in Crete is the most significant. It is currently in the Archaeological Museum of Heraklion, the capital of Crete.


Clay tablet inscribed with linear writing B, circa 1300 BCE

With a leap of four thousand years onward, the island of Crete continues to celebrate its primacy in two areas related to printing – the art of writing and the science of typography – by hosting the only major museum in printing in Greece. Welcome to the Typography Museum in Chania, Crete!

From concept to reality
The history of the Typography Museum is closely linked to the life of Yannis Garedakis. Circumstances forced him to join a press room in Athens quite early in his life. He then joined a newspaper published from the island of Crete. Garedakis remembers his early days in the printing industry in the early 1960s:

I was still a young man when I first entered the field of regional press, working for the historical newspaper Hania Paratiritis… I was there, all of a sudden, in a basement, locked in a corner, preparing news transcripts – you see, there was no news agency, no internet, etc. at the time – and making corrections. On the other side of the room, in front of the composition benches, typographers have assembled the font, letter by letter, composing the text. Standing for hours, silent, as if they were attending a sacred ritual, they arranged the letters at the stick of composition forming sentences, then the galleys with complete texts and finally the pages of the diary. Tired but proud at the end of the day. Last touch on their work – for me it was a kind of caress of the typographic plate, before printing started.

After a few years in the world of print media and journalism, Garedakis ventured to start his own newspaper, titled the Haniotika Nea (Chania News). Founded in 1967, it was based in the city of Chania (or Hania) which was the capital of Crete for a long time until it was replaced by Heraklion in 1971. Chania is one of the oldest cities in the world and claims be permanently inhabited for the past five thousand years or more. The first few years were very difficult for the newspaper as it was published when Greece was ruled by a military junta which tolerated no opposition. Over the years, hand-text composition has given way to Linotype and hot-melt composition. Photocomposition and digital composition follow each other quickly, and the newspaper has to constantly upgrade its printing technology. Haniotika Nea is now the most widely read regional daily in Greece
newspaper with a physical circulation of 6,000 copies.

Even as he built the reputation of his newspaper, Yannis Garedakis was aware that the world of printing technology was changing at a rapid pace. Each successive decade has seen a few more machines made redundant. He recalls the motivations that led him to:

Linotype printers and operators, working together in dark basements and sheds, fought for all forms of publication with love and respect for the lifeless objects of their work. These typographical objects, printing machines, typographers and operators should not be forgotten. We must maintain objects and machines, honor the memory of typographers and operators: this is the first thought that came to my mind. The idea of ​​creating a typography museum started to spin in my head about three decades ago.

Years go by and the newspaper flourishes economically thanks to its readers and advertising clients. It was then that the quest into the wonderful world of typography and its people began, and the journey leading to the founding of the Museum began. Gradually we began to collect printing press machines and other items related to the art of typography, a process that led to the birth of the Museum of Typography, managed by the Haniotika Nea newspaper. The museum was inaugurated in May 2005.

The word typography is duplicated in the Greek language. Not only does it describe the act of composing text i.e. typography, but it also means the process of printing. Thus, the museum was named “Museo Typographia” in Greek or Museum of Typography.


Hot Typecaster Intertype

A range of exhibitions
The printing press arrived late in Greece compared to many other European countries which were the centers of innovation for printing. Although the books were printed in Greek from the 15th century onwards, printing in Greece itself gained momentum much later. As in India, most printing machines were imported from elsewhere. The fonts used to print in Greek were designed in centers like Venice. It was not until the 19th century that Greece began to develop its own printing culture.

Yannis Garedakis, in partnership with his wife Eleni, started collecting machines from all over Europe which represented all printing technologies as they evolved over five centuries. They have a faithful replica of the printing press which was operated by Gutenberg. Most of the machines were salvaged from their own printing press, including an Intertype hot melt. Most of the machines are in working order and visitors are encouraged to use a few.


Exhibition on the history of writing

The museum also celebrates Crete as the motherland of writing in Europe with a special installation on “the history of writing”. Designed by artist-typographer Antonis Papantonopoulos, the exhibition traces the development of writing, rock art and hieroglyphics to rudimentary scripts and writing in its own right. The museum has also acquired many works printed in the 16th and 17th centuries which are on display. According to printing historian Alan Marshall, the Museum of Typography illustrates how “a private collection [can] become a museum thanks to the will, the perseverance and the generosity of two people actively involved in
printing and publishing.

Advance the cause
The Typography Museum under the leadership of its founders, Eleni and Yannis Garedakis and its director, Elia Koumi, has been very active in advancing the cause of printing museums around the world. They enthusiastically participated in the Association of European Printing Museums (AEPM) and successfully hosted the AEPM annual conference in 2017 in which a case was made “for the importance of museums in general and printing museums in particular as measures and vectors of progress, culture and democracy.

A Greek regional newspaper with a circulation of a few thousand copies has succeeded in building a world-class museum focused on the fields of writing, typography and printing through the sustained efforts of its owners and publishers. They were aided by donations of printing treasures from many sources, supported by the local government, and recognized as protecting and nurturing local heritage and culture. India has thousands of newspapers many of which have a legacy stretching back a century and more. Maybe a hundred of them have a daily circulation of lakhs and a few million. We hope that some of the
they will commit to protecting the heritage of the printed matter which has nourished and enriched them.




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Ancient DNA analysis sheds light on dark events in medieval Spain https://iainabrach.org/2021/09/23/ancient-dna-analysis-sheds-light-on-dark-events-in-medieval-spain/ https://iainabrach.org/2021/09/23/ancient-dna-analysis-sheds-light-on-dark-events-in-medieval-spain/#respond Thu, 23 Sep 2021 21:01:36 +0000 https://iainabrach.org/2021/09/23/ancient-dna-analysis-sheds-light-on-dark-events-in-medieval-spain/ Credit: PIXTA / CC0 public domain An international team of researchers, comprising geneticists, archaeologists and archaeologists, led by the Archaeological Research Group at the University of Huddersfield, has published the genome sequence of Al Andals, a unique individual in medieval Islamic Spain . The result has become clear. A brutal event that happened in medieval […]]]>

Credit: PIXTA / CC0 public domain

An international team of researchers, comprising geneticists, archaeologists and archaeologists, led by the Archaeological Research Group at the University of Huddersfield, has published the genome sequence of Al Andals, a unique individual in medieval Islamic Spain . The result has become clear. A brutal event that happened in medieval Spain.

Discovered in the ruins of an 11th-century Islamic cemetery in the town of Segorbe, near Valencia, Spain, the person is known to local archaeologists as the “Giant of Segorbe” due to his extraordinary size.

His skeleton suggested he may have African ancestors. Most of Spain has been gradually conquered by Arabs and Amazighs from Northwest Africa since the 8th century and has become one of the main centers of medieval European civilization.

The ancient DNA analysis was performed by Dr Marina Silva and Dr Gonzalo Oteo-Garcia, who were working on the Dr Leverhulme Trust Fellowship Program at the University of Evolutionary Genomics.

They discovered that the “giant” had a highly specific North African genetic line for its male and female pedigrees (Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA). This suggested that his recent ancestors actually belonged to a new Islamized Amazigh group from medieval Northwest Africa.

However, further investigation revealed a more complex situation. Male and female pedigrees are a small part of all of our ancestors. That is, from the father of the father of the father and the mother of the mother of the mother.

His genome-wide ancestors have shown that he also had a significant amount (perhaps more than half) of local Spanish ancestors on his chromosomes. Additionally, stable isotope analysis suggested that it probably grew locally. In other words, the Amazigh ancestors of the “giants” were in reality immigrants from previous generations. Therefore, he belonged to a sedentary community of a perfect mix of local Spaniards and North African immigrant ancestors.

Particularly striking was the fact that Professor Martin Richards, director of the University’s Center for Evolutionary Genomics, was very different from modern Amazighians, who have little or no genetics. I did it. patrimony..

This can be explained by the evolution of the political situation after the reconquest of Christianity in Spain, as explained by Dr Oteo Garcia, who recently started working at the University of Parma: Muslims who have already converted forcibly to Christianity the region by peoples further north, who had few ancestors in North Africa. ”

Dr Silva, who currently works at the Francis Crick Institute in London, said: “The impact of this drastic population change due to brutal political decisions hundreds of years ago can finally be observed directly using the Ancient DNA, as seen here. The “Giants of Segorbe” and the ancestors of their contemporaries. “


Genetic ancestors and the risk of high blood pressure


For more information:
Marina Silva et al., Biomolecular Insights into North African ancestry, mobility and diet in Al-Andalus in the 11th century, Scientific report (2021). DOI: 10.1038 / s41598-021-95996-3

Provided by
Huddersfield University

Quote: Analysis of ancient DNA was obtained from https://phys.org/news/2021-09-ancient-dna-analysis-dark-event.html on September 23, 2021 in medieval Spain ( September 23, 2021). Sun) illuminate the dark event

This document is subject to copyright. No part may be reproduced without written permission, except for fair dealing for the purposes of personal investigation or research. The content is provided for informational purposes only.

Source link Ancient DNA analysis sheds light on dark events in medieval Spain


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How the military budget affects US climate action https://iainabrach.org/2021/09/23/how-the-military-budget-affects-us-climate-action/ https://iainabrach.org/2021/09/23/how-the-military-budget-affects-us-climate-action/#respond Thu, 23 Sep 2021 11:26:26 +0000 https://iainabrach.org/2021/09/23/how-the-military-budget-affects-us-climate-action/ US President Joe Biden addressed the United Nations General Assembly on September 21 warning that the climate crisis is rapidly approaching a “point of no return”. He promised that the United States would rally the world to action. “We will lead not only with the example of our power but, God willing, with the power […]]]>

US President Joe Biden addressed the United Nations General Assembly on September 21 warning that the climate crisis is rapidly approaching a “point of no return”. He promised that the United States would rally the world to action. “We will lead not only with the example of our power but, God willing, with the power of our example,” said Biden.

But the United States is not a leader when it comes to saving our planet. Yahoo News recently published a report titled “Why the United States Lags Europe on 10 or 15 Year Climate Targets”. The article was a rare acknowledgment in American corporate media that the United States has not only failed to lead the world on the climate crisis, but has in fact been the primary culprit blocking timely collective action to avoid a world existential crisis.


Competing Doctrines in a New Cold War

READ MORE


The anniversary of the September 11 attacks and the American defeat in Afghanistan should ring alarm bells in every American’s head, warning us that we have allowed our government to spend billions of dollars on war, to cast shadows. , sell weapons and fuel conflicts. all over the world, while ignoring the real existential dangers for our civilization and all of humanity.

Young people around the world are dismayed by their parents’ failure to cope with the climate crisis. The BBC reports that a new survey of 10,000 people between the ages of 16 and 25 in 10 countries around the world found that many of them believe that humanity is doomed and that they have no to come up. Three quarters of young people surveyed said they were afraid of the future and 40% said the crisis made them hesitate to have children. They are also frightened, confused and angered by the inability of governments to respond to the crisis. As the BBC reported, they “feel betrayed, ignored and abandoned by politicians and adults”.

America is far behind

Young Americans have even more reason to feel betrayed than their European counterparts. America is far behind Europe on renewable energies. European countries started meeting their climate commitments under the Kyoto Protocol in the 1990s and now derive 40% of their electricity from renewable sources, while renewables provide only 20% of electricity to the United States. United.

Since 1990, the benchmark year for emission reductions under the Kyoto Protocol, Europe has reduced its greenhouse gas emissions by 24%. The United States has failed at all to reduce them, spitting out 2% more than in 1990. In 2019, under the Trump administration, the United States produced more oil and more natural gas than ever before. in their history.

NATO, our politicians and the mainstream media on both sides of the Atlantic promote the idea that the United States and Europe share a common “Western” culture and values. But our very different lifestyles, our priorities and our responses to this climate crisis tell the story of two very different, if not divergent, economic and political systems. The idea that human activity is responsible for climate change was understood decades ago and is not controversial in Europe. But in America, politicians and the media have blindly or cynically repeated fraudulent and selfish “disinformation” campaigns by fossil fuel companies and other vested interests. If Democrats listened better to scientists, let’s not forget that, as Europe replaced fossil fuels and nuclear power plants with renewables, the Obama administration triggered a boom in hydraulic fracturing to switch from coal power plants. to new plants running on fracking gas.

Why is the United States so far behind Europe when it comes to tackling global warming? Why do only 60% of Europeans own a car, compared to 90% of Americans? Why does every American car owner double the mileage traveled by European drivers? Why doesn’t the United States, like Europe, have modern, energy-efficient and widely accessible public transport?

We can ask similar questions about other stark differences between the United States and Europe. When it comes to poverty, inequality, health care, education, and social insurance, why is the United States an outlier compared to what is seen as societal norms in others? rich countries ?

One answer is the enormous amount of money the United States spends on militarism. Since 2001, the United States has allocated $ 15 trillion (in FY2022 dollars) to its military budget, surpassing its 20 closest military competitors combined.

The United States spends significantly more of its gross domestic product (GDP) on the military than any of the other 29 NATO countries – 3.7% in 2020 from 1.77%. While the United States has exerted intense pressure on NATO countries to devote at least 2% of their GDP to their armed forces, only 10 of them have done so. Unlike the United States, the military establishment in Europe faces significant opposition from liberal politicians and a more educated and mobilized public.

From a lack of universal health care to levels of child poverty that would be unacceptable in other wealthy countries, the US government’s underinvestment in everything else is the inevitable result of these skewed priorities. This leaves America struggling to cope with what is left after the US military bureaucracy takes the lion’s share – or should we say “the generals’ share”? – available resources.

Federal infrastructure and “social” spending in 2021 is only about 30% of the money spent on militarism. The infrastructure package that Congress is debating is desperately needed, but the $ 3.5 trillion is spread over 10 years and is not enough.

Climate against the army

On climate change, the infrastructure bill only includes $ 10 billion per year for conversion to green energy, an important but modest step that will not reverse our current course towards a catastrophic future. Investments in a Green New Deal must be constrained by corresponding cuts in the military budget if we are to sustainably correct the perverse and destructive priorities of the US government. It means standing up to the arms industry and military contractors, which the Biden administration has failed to do so far.

The reality of America’s 20-year arms race with itself makes America’s claims that China’s recent build-up of arms now force Washington to spend even more completely absurd. China spends only a third of what the United States spends. What drives the increase in China’s military spending is its need to defend against the ever-growing American war machine that “pivots” towards the waters, skies and islands surrounding its coasts from the administration. Obama.

Biden told the United Nations General Assembly that “as we close this period of relentless warfare, we usher in a new era of relentless diplomacy.” But his new exclusive military alliance with the UK and Australia, and his demand for a further increase in military spending to escalate a dangerous arms race with China that the US started in the first place, reveal to how far Biden has to go to live up to his own rhetoric, both on diplomacy and on climate change.

The United States is due to travel to the United Nations Climate Summit in Glasgow in November, ready to sign the kind of sweeping measures that the United Nations and less developed countries are calling for. It must make a real commitment to leaving fossil fuels in the ground, converting quickly to a net zero renewable energy economy, and helping developing countries to do the same. As UN Secretary General Antonio Guterres says, the Glasgow summit “must be the turning point” in the climate crisis.

This will require the United States to seriously reduce the military budget and engage in peaceful and practical diplomacy with China and Russia. Genuinely moving away from our self-inflicted military failures and the militarism that drove them would free the United States to adopt programs that address the real existential crisis facing our planet.

The opinions expressed in this article are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the editorial policy of Fair Observer.


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10 amazing contemporary buildings in China – SupChina https://iainabrach.org/2021/09/22/10-amazing-contemporary-buildings-in-china-supchina/ https://iainabrach.org/2021/09/22/10-amazing-contemporary-buildings-in-china-supchina/#respond Wed, 22 Sep 2021 22:50:20 +0000 https://iainabrach.org/2021/09/22/10-amazing-contemporary-buildings-in-china-supchina/ Architecture: 10 amazing contemporary buildings in China – SupChina Skip to content Find a company based in China Find a company based in ChinaEvergrande GroupGanfeng LithiumShenghe Resources HoldingNorth China Rare Earth GroupBaotou Iron and SteelGemLens technologyKanzhunKuaishouMissFreshXuanji technologyVolitationHuimingjieAEEEHangThree Gorges Society of ChinaChina across the oceanHoneycombXAGCMSGDUFoiaSYS SkyTIMAutel roboticsChina Aviation Industry CompanyChinese Academy of Aerospace AerodynamicsEngines of the […]]]>



Architecture: 10 amazing contemporary buildings in China – SupChina






















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Nigerians provide artwork to British Museum with new looted bronze catch https://iainabrach.org/2021/09/22/nigerians-provide-artwork-to-british-museum-with-new-looted-bronze-catch/ https://iainabrach.org/2021/09/22/nigerians-provide-artwork-to-british-museum-with-new-looted-bronze-catch/#respond Wed, 22 Sep 2021 10:06:59 +0000 https://iainabrach.org/2021/09/22/nigerians-provide-artwork-to-british-museum-with-new-looted-bronze-catch/ Bronze founder Edson Mwan William will be seen in one of his works on August 24, 2021 at the Gallery on Igan Street in Benin City, Nigeria. Taken on August 24, 2021. REUTERS / Tife Owolabi September 22, 2021 By Tife Owolabi and Estelle Shirbon Benin City, Nigeria (Reuters) – Works of art at the […]]]>

Bronze founder Edson Mwan William will be seen in one of his works on August 24, 2021 at the Gallery on Igan Street in Benin City, Nigeria. Taken on August 24, 2021. REUTERS / Tife Owolabi

September 22, 2021

By Tife Owolabi and Estelle Shirbon

Benin City, Nigeria (Reuters) – Works of art at the British Museum in London as a way to encourage the new artists’ guild of Benin City, Nigeria, to return the precious Benin bronze looted by the British from the palace royal of the city. I offered to donate. The army of 1897.

Created in the once powerful kingdom of Benin since at least the 16th century, bronze and brass sculptures are one of the most refined and culturally significant crafts. The European museums that house them have been the subject of many years of criticism for their status as spoils and symbols of colonial greed.

Artist and bronzer Ahiam Wenguild says he wants to change the terms of the debate by offering contemporary art pieces that showcase the contemporary culture of Benin City at the British Museum, which is not contaminated by the history of predators. ..

Osarobo Zeickner-Okoro, founding member of the new guild and supporter of donations, said: “I think we are making them even better now. “

“Some of the crimes committed, it’s not just good, they were looted, it’s the fact that you described our civilization as a dead civilization, you described us as ancient Egypt or something in which I put it on, ”he said.

The artwork presented in Benin City at a ceremony attended by members of the court was made entirely with 2m x 2m bronze plaques carved to represent historical events in Benin. Contains life-size rams from spark plugs.

The British Museum was asked to comment on the offer, but only said it was a debate between itself and the party providing the object.

Zeickner-Okoro, who traveled from Benin City to London this month to advance the initiative, said there was a meeting to find a curator for the museum’s African division.

Germany wants to return the Benin bronzes from the museum to Nigeria, but the British Museum, which houses the largest and most important collection of objects, has stopped making explicit promises.

The website says its director, Hartwig Fischer, had an audience with Oba (King) of Benin in 2018. This included a discussion of new opportunities to share and display artifacts in the Kingdom of Benin.

However, many in Benin City ignore the legitimacy of European museums that hold loot.

“They have to get it back. It is not the property of their father. This property belongs to Oba, Benin, ”said Chef Bronzecaster Nosa Ogiakia.

Zeickner-Okoro, who grew up partly in the UK before returning to Benin City, admitted that Benin Bronze’s presence in European museums has helped reach audiences around the world. But he said they should now go back to the place and the people who made them.

“The descendants of those who cast these bronzes have never seen the work, as most of them cannot afford to travel to London to come to the British Museum,” he said. .

“They have PDF copies of these catalogs, British Museum catalogs, and they use them to reference the work of their ancestors. I think it’s very sad.

(Tife Owolabi was reported by Benin City and Estelle Shirbon was reported by London; edited by Giles Elgood)

Source link Nigerians provide artwork to British Museum with new looted bronze catch


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Explore Greek Civilization as a multifaceted phenomenon with the MA in Greek Civilization at the University of Nicosia https://iainabrach.org/2021/09/21/explore-greek-civilization-as-a-multifaceted-phenomenon-with-the-ma-in-greek-civilization-at-the-university-of-nicosia/ https://iainabrach.org/2021/09/21/explore-greek-civilization-as-a-multifaceted-phenomenon-with-the-ma-in-greek-civilization-at-the-university-of-nicosia/#respond Tue, 21 Sep 2021 16:38:06 +0000 https://iainabrach.org/2021/09/21/explore-greek-civilization-as-a-multifaceted-phenomenon-with-the-ma-in-greek-civilization-at-the-university-of-nicosia/ The University of Nicosia announces a call for applications for thirty (30) admission positions for its internationally unique Masters in Greek Civilization (English, Distance Learning Program) for the fall semester 2021. The Masters program at the University of Nicosia explores the multifaceted phenomenon of Greek civilization, both in its diachronic and in its thematic range. […]]]>

The University of Nicosia announces a call for applications for thirty (30) admission positions for its internationally unique Masters in Greek Civilization (English, Distance Learning Program) for the fall semester 2021.

The Masters program at the University of Nicosia explores the multifaceted phenomenon of Greek civilization, both in its diachronic and in its thematic range. At the heart of its design is the investigation of the fundamental Greek concepts and values ​​that shaped and still are at the heart of the modern Western world. Freedom, democracy, aesthetics, logic and the search for truth and scientific knowledge are some of the areas explored by the program.

The study program covers the main body of Greek culture, providing students with a unique educational opportunity that is internationally distinct in terms of content.

In particular, the program gives candidates the opportunity to deepen, through a specialized bibliography in English, a number of subjects. The courses are based on thematic subjects from various disciplines in the field of Greek civilization, such as history, philosophy, literature, science, arts and language. Additionally, students will deal with topics that generate international interest as they combine aspects of Greek antiquity with contemporary culture, such as contemporary scenic approaches to ancient drama, modern Greek cinema, history of the Greek printing and digital culture.

The program is intended for applicants who wish to pursue a career in the fields of letters and the arts and aspire to be actively engaged in research and education on Greek cultural studies, or are considering applying for admission to a doctoral program. in related fields.

Thanks for reading Hellenic News of America

About the program

School

School of Humanities and Social Sciences

Duration

1.5 years (i.e. three semesters)

Positions

30 (thirty)

Tongue

All aspects of the program (application, interviews, courses) are in English

Admission requirements and procedures

The general minimum requirement for admission to the graduate program is a bachelor’s degree from a recognized university (e.g., American, European) or other recognized equivalent qualification).

In addition to the above, applicants must also meet the following requirements:

  • Two letters of recommendation relating to the candidate’s ability to pursue higher education.
  • A personal interview may be required.

English proficiency

Students meet the English requirements if their first degree was taught in English. Otherwise, they will be required to present a minimum TOEFL score of 550 and above, or a TOEFL computer-based score of 213 and above, or an Internet-based TOEFL (iBT) score 79-80 and above, or GCSE (or GCE) English Language ” O “Level” C “or above or IELTS of 6.5 and above or Cambridge exams (first certificate with grade B and above, as well as proficiency with grade C and above or a score placement at ENGL-100 level of the The University’s English Placement Test.The University offers English courses at different levels to help students reach the level required for admission to a graduate program.

Academic staff of the program

  • Teacher. Rossitsa Artemis
  • Dr Petros Bouras-Vallianatos
  • Dr Costas Constandinides
  • Dr Marios Hatzopoulos
  • Teacher. Vasilis Karasmanis
  • Prof. Klimis Mastoridis
  • Prof. Christos Panayides
  • Dr Nikos Pegioudis
  • Dr Marina Rodosthenous
  • Dr Niki Sioki
  • Dr Avra ​​Xepapadakou

For more information on the Program:

https://www.unic.ac.cy/greek-civilization-ma-1-5-years-or-3-semesters-distance-learning/

To submit your application:

https://register.unic.ac.cy/study-ma-greek-civilization-online/

You can download the Greek Civilization (MA) brochure here:

https://register.unic.ac.cy/wp-content/uploads/MA-Greek-Civilization-Distance-Learning-May-2021.pdf


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Animal Doctor: Good news from Europe for farm animals | Lifestyles https://iainabrach.org/2021/09/21/animal-doctor-good-news-from-europe-for-farm-animals-lifestyles/ https://iainabrach.org/2021/09/21/animal-doctor-good-news-from-europe-for-farm-animals-lifestyles/#respond Tue, 21 Sep 2021 05:15:00 +0000 https://iainabrach.org/2021/09/21/animal-doctor-good-news-from-europe-for-farm-animals-lifestyles/ Dear Dr Fox: My two rescued Yorkies, 7 and 8, are generally in good health. They are domestic animals and rarely like to walk. They go to the backyard and do their business and come back quickly. Walking was sheer calamity, dragging them on. They have been on the prescription revolution to prevent parasites. What […]]]>

Dear Dr Fox: My two rescued Yorkies, 7 and 8, are generally in good health. They are domestic animals and rarely like to walk. They go to the backyard and do their business and come back quickly. Walking was sheer calamity, dragging them on.

They have been on the prescription revolution to prevent parasites. What do you think of this medication, which is given to the neck on a monthly basis? Is there a natural substitute that you would recommend? They rarely see other dogs and are up to date with their vaccines. They see the vet every year, except when something goes wrong.

Also: Yorkies are known for tooth decay. What can I use to minimize this problem? – HLM, West Palm Beach, Florida

Dear HLM: Repeated human exposure to selamectin (the medicine of Revolution) while handling and petting dogs treated with this medicine may present potential health risks, particularly to veterinarians, veterinary technicians, trainers / handlers -dogs and pet owners, according to research published in the journal Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods.

Rather than relying on this drug to prevent heartworms, ask your vet to give you ivermectin, which is given by mouth. To control fleas, use the steps built into my article titled “Preventing Fleas, Ticks & Mosquitoes” on my website (drfoxonehealth.com).

When it comes to your dog dental health concerns, you should get your dogs used to brushing their teeth and encourage them to chew rawhide chews made in the USA and free of chemicals. See my review “Dental Problems in Pets”, also posted on my website.


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Mitsotakis cites the danger of not dealing with the fallout from climate change | greece, politics https://iainabrach.org/2021/09/20/mitsotakis-cites-the-danger-of-not-dealing-with-the-fallout-from-climate-change-greece-politics/ https://iainabrach.org/2021/09/20/mitsotakis-cites-the-danger-of-not-dealing-with-the-fallout-from-climate-change-greece-politics/#respond Mon, 20 Sep 2021 14:44:00 +0000 https://iainabrach.org/2021/09/20/mitsotakis-cites-the-danger-of-not-dealing-with-the-fallout-from-climate-change-greece-politics/ ATHENS – He blamed climate change for the record summer fires caused by heat waves and now Greek Prime Minister Kyriakos Mitsotakis has said it is Mediterranean countries that must show how to deal with a phenomenon denied by skeptics . Turkey, Cyprus and Spain were also overrun with wildfires, with flooding in Turkey and […]]]>

ATHENS – He blamed climate change for the record summer fires caused by heat waves and now Greek Prime Minister Kyriakos Mitsotakis has said it is Mediterranean countries that must show how to deal with a phenomenon denied by skeptics .

Turkey, Cyprus and Spain were also overrun with wildfires, with flooding in Turkey and Germany after forests and hills lost the ability to slow water down due to the devastation left behind.

“I don’t want to talk about climate change anymore. I want to talk about the climate crisis, it’s already there, ”Mitsotakis told Reuters in an interview. “And to deal with it, we need horizontal policies that essentially permeate all aspects of our economic and social life”, without specifying any.

A United Nations climate panel has warned that deadly heat waves, huge hurricanes and other extreme weather events will only get worse, but despite widespread evidence there are groups and these say that this is not true.

Mitsotakis had even before the fires tried to deal with the prospect of climate change bringing bad weather that could affect the country’s economy and infrastructure, claiming there would be a ban on coal-fired power plants by 2028. and creating a ministry to deal with climate. caused seizures.

He used a meeting of leaders from nine countries at the EUMED9 summit in Athens to lead a statement warning of the consequences of not addressing climate change as the European Union has been slow to deal with it.

The UN climate conference COP26 in Glasgow which begins on October 31 aims to accelerate plans to slow climate change, but previous similar meetings have led to tentative plans that have not worked.

In the worst-case scenario, the climate crisis would represent the “destruction of human civilization as we know it,” Mitsotakis told Reuters, trying to explain the extent of ignoring the dangers.

“We have to be very, very, very clear. This is exactly what is at stake. If worst case scenarios materialize, this planet will no longer be hospitable to mankind by the end of this century.

“Here in the Mediterranean, we have nearly 6,000 years of civilization behind us, but it is the duty of our generation to ensure that future generations continue to live, prosper and prosper,” he said. declared.

The World Meteorological Organization, a United Nations agency, said the number of disasters caused by climate change has jumped 500 percent over the past half century, killing more than two million people and costing 3.64 trillions of dollars in losses.

The cost of the crisis was “unimaginable” globally and even in terms of national economies, Mitsotakis said, but Greece has had to pump up coal-fired power plants this summer to cope with power shortages after the fires .

Floods in Greece cost half a billion euros in 2020 and he said the total will increase if you count damage to crops and agriculture, such as loss of honey and other property. on the island of Euboea ravaged by fire this summer.

Greece has reduced its greenhouse gases by 11 million tonnes since late 2019 by moving away from coal, Mitsotakis said. Greek authorities were also moving “at high speed” to place flood barriers in forests destroyed by the fires this summer, he said.

His New Democracy government had been criticized for its responses to the fires, especially from the main opposition SYRIZA, which was in power when the forest fires of July 23, 2018 killed 102 people.

Leftists have been accused of having no real disaster response plan and of increasing the death toll by failing to respond quickly as wildfires spread and no warning program to emergency was in place for cell phones.

Mitsotakis admitted there had been gaps in his government’s handling of the fires, as some residents complained that there were no planes dumped in water to deal with some of the bigger fires. .

He apologized for any breach. “In the face of fires of this intensity, it is very clear that we have to do things differently,” he said. “So we have to learn from our mistakes,” he also said.


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AU professors’ book examines the historical impact of insects | Colleges and Universities https://iainabrach.org/2021/09/20/au-professors-book-examines-the-historical-impact-of-insects-colleges-and-universities/ https://iainabrach.org/2021/09/20/au-professors-book-examines-the-historical-impact-of-insects-colleges-and-universities/#respond Mon, 20 Sep 2021 05:45:00 +0000 https://iainabrach.org/2021/09/20/au-professors-book-examines-the-historical-impact-of-insects-colleges-and-universities/ If you’re happy to read this story in English rather than French, thank a mosquito. Specifically, thank Aedes aegypti, also known as yellow fever mosquitoes. In 1802, Napoleon Bonaparte was attempting to expand his possessions in the Americas when his troops were stopped dead in Haiti. At least 30,000 soldiers have fallen due to yellow […]]]>

If you’re happy to read this story in English rather than French, thank a mosquito.

Specifically, thank Aedes aegypti, also known as yellow fever mosquitoes.

In 1802, Napoleon Bonaparte was attempting to expand his possessions in the Americas when his troops were stopped dead in Haiti. At least 30,000 soldiers have fallen due to yellow fever and malaria, but mostly yellow fever, which is transmitted by mosquitoes. Faced with such a devastating loss, the French decided to leave the New World.

Napoleon and the French sold the Louisiana Purchase, which included Arkansas, to then President Thomas Jefferson to recoup their investment. The rest is history … from the perspective of entomologists Rob Wiedenmann and Ray Fisher.

Wiedenmann is Emeritus Professor of Entomology and former Head of the Entomology Department of the Agricultural System Division at the University of Arkansas and the Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences at the U of A. Fisher is postdoctoral researcher in entomology. for the Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station, the research arm of the Agriculture Division.

The couple are the author of “The Silken Thread: Five Insects and Their Impacts on Human History,” published by Oxford University Press this month.

The book examines the significant impacts on human history by household silk moths, human body lice, eastern rat fleas, yellow fever mosquitoes, and western bees. Silk moth and honey bee have brought economic benefits to civilizations. The other three spread devastating diseases that interrupted the course of Western civilization.

INSPIRATION

The idea for a book arose from a course that Wiedenmann taught, titled “Insects, Science and History”. Originally an undergraduate course that introduced students from other major subjects to entomology, he revised the course to include the impacts of insects on human life and culture.

After Wiedenmann retired in 2019, he and Fisher were friends since Fisher was working on his doctorate. at the University of Arkansas, met regularly for lunch, usually at Hammontree’s. The Fayetteville restaurant receives a nod in the acknowledgments of the book. Their conversation often turned to stories about the impacts of insects on human history.

“Ray said, ‘You should write a book,’” said Wiedenmann.

They decided it was a two-man business. Wiedenmann had what he calls in the book of “zillions” of stories about the intersection of insect history and human history. It was Fisher’s idea to reduce those zillions to five.

“He had way too many stories to fit into a book that everyone would want to read,” Fisher said. “I had to get it under control. “

“We started with: Can we write a cool story with these five bugs? ”Said Fisher. “Many insects have had diffuse impacts on history. But these five have made huge strides in history. They have a very narrative story where they made these right angle changes in the trajectory of human history.

Just as they began to work in earnest, the COVID-19 pandemic changed the course of human history in its own way. Wiedenmann and Fisher collaborated mainly through Zoom. Wiedenmann had the essentials of the story, but they knew they needed to find clear historical documents and biological evidence to back up their accounts.

Fisher turned out to be the Indiana Jones of historical and entomological research. “Ray would find these references obscure,” Wiedenmann said, adding that they drove him crazy. Until they don’t. “The reference to the amoeba pushed me to the limit,” he said. “But it was perfect.”

Amoeba eat bacteria. But the bacterium that causes the plague has a trick that prevents it from being digested and, instead, uses amoeba to survive in conditions it couldn’t otherwise endure. The full story is in Chapter 6. You’ll love it.

RELEARN HISTORY

As Wiedenmann and Fisher delved into the stories they wanted to tell, they discovered that much of what they thought they knew about the story was wrong.

“Everyone knows that fleas carried on rats caused the plague of the Black Death in Europe,” Fisher said. “Except they didn’t.”

Fisher said the rat’s oriental fleas carried the plague bacteria out of Asia, but did not cause the rapid spread, turning the plague into a black plague. Another pest – lice of the human body are considered the culprits that quickly spread the first two plagues.

“When we think of the Black Death, everything we thought we knew was wrong,” Fisher said.

Each discovery was like a revelation. Wiedenmann said: “I kept asking Luann (his wife), ‘Did you know? Almost daily we learned that the story we thought we knew was wrong.

Their book is also full of little stories that connect their insect subjects to great historical moments, like the plot to kill Abraham Lincoln with what may have been the first attempt at biological warfare.

Before anyone knew that Aedes aegypti mosquitoes spread yellow fever, many people believed that clothes worn by sick people could spread the disease. Dr Luke Pryor Blackburn, a staunch supporter of Confederation and hatred of all things Nordic, collected clothes from yellow fever victims, packed them and shipped them to auction houses in northern towns, in the hope of infecting as many Yankees as possible. He even sent a load he claimed could kill 60 yards to an auction house on Pennsylvania Avenue, a stone’s throw from the White House. He hoped Lincoln would pass and die.

Wiedenmann and Fisher also show how IBM should thank domestic silkworms for their role in inventing computers. Check out Chapter Three for this story.

TIE THAT TIES

The common thread running through each of these insect stories is the network of ancient roads collectively called the Silk Roads, through which the Chinese traded silk to the world.

Silk became a major commodity that ultimately linked Eastern and Western civilizations on the Silk Roads. “The history of silk is the history of humans,” said Wiedenmann. And the history of silk begins with the domestication of the silkworm, perhaps 7,000 years ago, he said.

These Silk Roads became major routes for many purposes, from trade to war. And the insect subjects of The Silken Thread found their way along these roads – both coming and going with the trailers that roamed them.

The human body louse and the eastern rat flea, both carriers of the Black Death in their time, found their way to Europe, carried by the caravans that traveled the Silk Roads.

Aedes aegypti arrived in the Americas by a different and notorious route, but was linked to the Silk Roads by external links. Fisher said the link was sugar cane, which originated in the tropics of Asia and found its way to Europe via the Silk Roads. But Europeans, eager to cultivate the crop on their own, discovered that the heat-loving plant thrived in the New World tropics. But they needed a workforce.

The authors tell how the African slave trade originated on the Atlantic island of Madeira and eventually spread to the Americas.

Yellow fever originates from islands near Madagascar and has spread on and across the African continent. When the slave traders began to attack West Africa to enslave the peoples, Aedes aegypti and their deadly hitchhiker awaited them. Mosquitoes and yellow fever were transported to the Caribbean on slave ships and eventually spread to the rest of the Americas.

Western honey bees, also known as European honey bees, have traveled the Silk Roads in the opposite direction to the other four insects in the book. Bees provided an abundant agricultural product – honey – in demand in the east. Not to mention the donation of bee pollination for fruit and vegetable crops.

BACK TO BONAPARTE

Poor Napoleon’s bad luck neither began nor ended with his disastrous encounter with Aedes aegypti and yellow fever. He was defeated three times by the disease-carrying characters from Wiedenmann and Fisher’s book.

Before he ran out of luck in the New World, Bonaparte’s campaign in Egypt and Syria was interrupted by Eastern rat fleas. He left with 13,000 soldiers for this mission. After losing some 2,000 of them to the plague transmitted by fleas and having been hampered by many other patients, Napoleon bailed out this operation.

Finally, its Russian invasion was lost in 1812 when its Grande Armée of 650,000 French and Allied troops was reduced to 20,000 who returned home in good health. Historians attribute this defeat mainly to the fighting spirit of the Russians and the intense cold of the Russian winter, and they are not entirely wrong. But Wiedenmann said many died from typhus, which spread when shivering survivors donned the lice-infested coats of those who died from the disease.

POINT OF VIEW

Wiedenmann and Fisher concede that modern historians may not fully share their views on history. “We are not historians,” said Wiedenmann. “We are just entomologists with a love for history.”

Wiedenmann and Fisher say the book was a delightful voyage of discovery for its authors.

“The wonderful things we learned along the way have everything to do with how much we enjoyed writing this book,” said Wiedenmann.


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