European Civilization – Iain Abrach http://iainabrach.org/ Wed, 29 Jun 2022 02:38:57 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=5.9.3 https://iainabrach.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/04/default1-150x150.png European Civilization – Iain Abrach http://iainabrach.org/ 32 32 Transitional Tale | News from the Docks https://iainabrach.org/2022/06/29/transitional-tale-news-from-the-docks/ Wed, 29 Jun 2022 02:38:57 +0000 https://iainabrach.org/2022/06/29/transitional-tale-news-from-the-docks/ Make no mistake, the beautiful view you see over the waters of Victoria Harbor comes at a cost. By this, I am not referring to the cost of your apartment! What we now see as Victoria Harbor’s wondrous aquatic amphitheater is described by some historians as a “victim of modern civilization without remorse”. This is […]]]>

Make no mistake, the beautiful view you see over the waters of Victoria Harbor comes at a cost. By this, I am not referring to the cost of your apartment!

What we now see as Victoria Harbor’s wondrous aquatic amphitheater is described by some historians as a “victim of modern civilization without remorse”. This is perhaps too dark and catastrophic a lens through which to understand the forces that shaped the Docklands precinct – a story of transition.

Prior to European settlement in 1835, this area between the Yarra River and Moonee Ponds Creek was an abundant and beautiful wetland. The shallow, shimmering blue “lake” or “lagoon” teemed with animals, birds, and plants that served as rich food sources and supported the cultural traditions of the Kulin Nation people. This wetland was an important meeting place for traditional owners who gathered in large gatherings for trade, celebrations and other social activities.

Time passed, the colony grew, and Blue Lake became a mere swamp for European settlers – first “Batman’s Swamp” and later “West Melbourne Swamp”. With the increase in population and manufacturing it degenerated further – ugly, polluted, smelly of noxious trades, the area was considered unsanitary and was shunned by prosperous settlers as a refuge for the poor. In the middle of the 19th century, the marsh turned into a vast contaminated bog absorbing industrial effluents from a rapidly growing urban agglomeration.

A growing city needed adequate port facilities and with ambition, foresight and funds, later in the 19th century this wasteland was seen as a site of opportunity and the swamp grew into the vast excavated expanse of the Victoria Harbour. At the end of the 19th century, the powerful decision makers of the relatively wealthy colony embarked on ambitious civil engineering works and, with an abundance of cheap labor in the midst of a depression, altered the shape even not only from the swamp, but also from the surrounding land. .

Blue Lake Intermittent Lake/Swamp has been drained and excavated. Existing streams were rerouted, channeled into what is now known as the Dynon Road Tidal Canal, paralleling Dynon Rd. The once extensive marsh has been reduced to a small wetland. Spoil from the excavation was piled into new earthworks along the Yarra River and shaped into what became Collins Wharf, and Coode Island was created. Melbourne now had a world-famous harbour, known as a marvel of civil engineering, much of it excavated by hand. All of this added greatly to Melbourne’s available port space and supported a booming maritime trading economy.

The Blue Lake had successfully transitioned into the major and hugely important international port of Victoria. New shipping and rail infrastructure filled the port and this efficient, extensive and bustling port fueled the prosperity of Melbourne and Victoria.

Inexorably, the transition continues. Mid-20th century technological advances in refrigeration and containerization, together with the sheer volume of maritime trade, resulted in the relocation of port operations westward from Victoria Harbor to new docks at Swanston and Appleton.

There are clear parallels to be drawn between Blue Lake’s transition from an abundant and rich wetland to a large contaminated bog, and the success and redundancy of Port Victoria from a brownfield site to a renovation site. of swanky brownfields filled with properties. developments which is the Docklands area today.

History indicates that transitions are constant – recovery, reinvention, reorientation and revitalization will continue. What are we now faced with? More logistics capacity, more automation, a gigantic tonnage of ships. Just as Victoria Harbor has become too small, will Port Phillip Bay and The Heads be deemed too shallow for gigantic bulk carriers? We are already hearing speculation about next-phase cargo hubs away from the city center. Will the idyllic Blue Lake really return? Not as a food source perhaps, but as a wonderful aquatic recreational play space for Melburnians?

The Royal Historical Society of Victoria recently held an excellent exhibition called The Swamp Vanishes. View this exhibit online – the images are stunning. Visit historyvictoria.org.au for more information.

Public records are the ‘stuff of heritage’ and the importance of a new project from the Public Record Office Victoria (PROV), Ports and harbours: an amazing story of document transfer, provides a treasure of the Docklands district. Melbourne Maritime Heritage Network encourages you to experience this wonderful PROV project capturing the historical public records of Ports Victoria and previous agencies including the Commissioners of the Melbourne Harbor Trust, the Ports and Harbors branch of the Department of Public Works, the Authority of the Port of Melbourne and Geelong. Port Trust. The entire collection is now available through Open Access and can be viewed and ordered from the PROV North Melbourne Reading Room. See: prov.vic.gov.au/about-us/our-blog/ports-and-harbours-record-transfer-story

Caption: Hydrographic survey plan of Yarra River and Victoria Wharf, Queen’s Bridge to Coode Island PROV VPRS 18781 C1 474731A.

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Will the unification of the West lie in World War II-style alliances? https://iainabrach.org/2022/06/27/will-the-unification-of-the-west-lie-in-world-war-ii-style-alliances/ Mon, 27 Jun 2022 10:49:29 +0000 https://iainabrach.org/2022/06/27/will-the-unification-of-the-west-lie-in-world-war-ii-style-alliances/ At first glance, Russia’s invasion of Ukraine was not a total shock due to its historical ties and common Soviet history. For Russia, Ukraine was a way to regain its lost glory at the height of Soviet expansion. However, a more strategic and immediate reason for Russia’s invasion lies in NATO’s eastward expansion and the […]]]>

At first glance, Russia’s invasion of Ukraine was not a total shock due to its historical ties and common Soviet history. For Russia, Ukraine was a way to regain its lost glory at the height of Soviet expansion. However, a more strategic and immediate reason for Russia’s invasion lies in NATO’s eastward expansion and the pro-Western stance of the current Ukrainian government, which Russia sees as a threat lurking on its borders. .

On the other hand, a poll by the International Republican Institute found that Ukrainians perceive Russia as an imperial power seeking to trample on their sovereignty and territorial integrity, with nearly 80% of the population wanting to join the European Union. . The world is still coming to terms with the Ukrainian invasion of Russia and the scale of the resulting humanitarian disaster. On February 24, 2022, in a televised address, Putin ordered military tanks to drive through Ukraine as part of a “special military operation” to “denazify” the Ukrainian military and subsequently alter the pro-Western stance. of the country towards Russia. At first, it seemed like an easy and smooth victory. However, the quick response of a unified west and the commendable resistance of the Ukrainian army and its people prolonged the war. At this point, the war entered its 120th day on June 23, with Russia gaining ground in eastern Ukraine, accompanied by domestic economic pressures.

In the midst of this ongoing crisis for more than 120 days now, one thing that has emerged is the idea of ​​“Western unification,” which has otherwise been absent since World War II. So far, Europe has been relatively dispersed due to economic, refugee and sovereignty crises – also due to Trump-era policies and abrupt withdrawal from international agreements. With the arrival of the Biden administration in the 2020 presidential elections, the United States has rekindled its relationship with the European Union, which has also strengthened the Western response to the current war between Russia and Ukraine. The ongoing war is perceived as a collective threat by Europe, as last seen in the 1940s. Against this background, this article examines the Western response during World War II and compares it to the recent Russian-Ukrainian war. The West seems to be accentuating itself in a new avatar under the leadership of its hegemon, the United States. By implication, the role of the United States in the Western unification now emerging in the contemporary context merits further analysis. Moreover, in light of the NATO chief’s prediction that the war could last for years, it becomes essential to analyze the Western response as hegemonic.

US/WEST RESPONSE: NOW vs. THEN

To understand the phenomenon of Western unification in the current context of the Russian-Ukrainian war, it becomes relevant to revisit the events of World War II. In its Milestones series, the Office of the Historian writes that after the attack on Pearl Harbor in December 1941, the United States emerged from its “deeply isolationist” policy and directly intervened in the war. The Allies, namely the United States, the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union, provided the collective leadership of the war against Hitler’s Germany. The role of the United States, however, is central to the argument as it unites the West against a common enemy perceived as a threat to the liberal international order. The centrality emerges from the fact that no European country acted against Hitler and his expansionist policies until 1939, when he forced Europe into war. Even though it entered the main stage, the United States then provided military leadership and assistance to war-torn Britain and France and staged a grand display of unity against the forces of the United States. ‘Axis. The United States supported the war effort indirectly through the Cash and Carry system, Lend-Lease, and by providing military aid to allies in Europe. When Japan attacked the United States, it only began a massive mobilization effort by sending its armies overseas.

Reading the current crisis, the situation is more or less similar. The White House, in its April 6 statements and press releases, emphasized that the United States is orchestrating a united Western front by staying in constant contact with European leaders and officials while working on common sanctions against the visible threat. of Russia. Although the United States was directly involved in the war effort during World War II, it relied on sanctions rather than direct intervention in today’s scenario. However, trends such as the inability of European leaders to act against Hitler during World War II due to their vested interests were visible in the ongoing crisis. For example, although Germany took swift action against Russia’s unwarranted aggression, it took time to consider its energy dependence and the Nord Stream project. Similarly, the hypocrisy of France in not using the term “genocide” to describe war crimes in Ukraine was mentioned.

In this context, the United States has established itself as a hegemonic power on which most European countries have depended since the Second World War for their security. The United States has successfully rallied like-minded democracies to its side in a battle to save freedom, sovereignty, democracy and human rights. In its response, the Council of the European Union, in its guidance note, said the European Union had worked with the US administration and officials to introduce tough sanctions against leaders, oligarchs, banks and Russian brands. Germany increased its defense budget to 2% of GDP, Switzerland abandoned its neutral position and Finland and Sweden asked to join NATO on May 18 to protect themselves from possible Russian aggression. The Western Front imposed sweeping sanctions and banned Russia’s central bank, Sberbank, from SWIFT payments, negatively impacting the Russian economy. Despite the sanctions, Russia is able to dictate its terms due to Europe’s heavy reliance on Russian oil and gas imports. To reduce dependence and assert itself in the management of the crisis, the European Union has planned to reduce European imports of Russian crude oil for six months. All of this became reality thanks to the efforts of the United States to revitalize its influential influence among European nations in order to counterbalance the threat from Russia. Unsurprisingly, the United States will actively respond to reports of missing American veterans who have joined Ukrainian forces to fight alongside them.

THE IMPORTANCE OF WESTERN UNIFICATION

The West has come together at a time when it faces an existential threat from a changing world order across the globe. Its unification and achievement of collective defense is particularly significant in the revitalization of NATO across Europe and, with NATO, the resurgence of US hegemonic control over the Western Hemisphere. In recent years, there have been endless questions about the US’s waning influence in continental Europe and its overreliance on China and Russia in trade matters. However, with the protracted Russian-Ukrainian conflict, the United States might have regained its previous position as a net security provider for Europe and might as well reaffirm its commitments to the protection of Europe through of NATO. Western unification is also very relevant in the Russian-Ukrainian conflict because of the threat posed to the whole of continental Europe by common aggressors, such as China. Under the leadership of the United States, European countries have united to protect themselves from China’s territorial expansionist ambitions, while France and Germany face the threat of a “resurgent Russia”.

In a nutshell, Putin’s war on Ukraine has shaken Western civilization, which has been traumatized after seeing large numbers of white-skinned European refugees flock to their borders. Western civilization is also threatened by China’s aggressive expansionism and needs an urgent resurgence. At this point, the conflict in Eastern Europe gave a glimmer of hope for countries to unite against a common aggressor in the style of World War II and project it as a triumph of “Western civilization”. While countries have failed to capitalize on the initiative they have taken in the form of sanctions, this has nevertheless brought together a relatively dispersed Europe, compared to the pre-globalization era, under a common umbrella of unification led by the United States of America. The United States cements the “idea of ​​the West” in a contemporary context by emphasizing, through its alleged unity, that the West is still there.

Yuvraj Pokharna is a freelance journalist and columnist. Shivam Tiwary graduated in Journalism and is pursuing his Masters in International Studies. The opinions expressed in this article are those of the authors and do not represent the position of this publication.

Read all the latest news, breaking news, watch the best videos and live TV here.

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The Shadow of Barbarossa – OpEd – Eurasia Review https://iainabrach.org/2022/06/23/the-shadow-of-barbarossa-oped-eurasia-review/ Thu, 23 Jun 2022 00:04:26 +0000 https://iainabrach.org/2022/06/23/the-shadow-of-barbarossa-oped-eurasia-review/ June 22, 2022 is the 81st anniversary of the launch of Operation Barbarossa, Germany’s invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941, when large-scale fighting in World War II began in earnest. It was the greatest military campaign in the history of mankind. This date is especially noted during the invasion of Ukraine by Russia, because […]]]>

June 22, 2022 is the 81st anniversary of the launch of Operation Barbarossa, Germany’s invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941, when large-scale fighting in World War II began in earnest. It was the greatest military campaign in the history of mankind. This date is especially noted during the invasion of Ukraine by Russia, because Hitler’s attempt to conquer the vast territories that lie in the East has great relevance for the current war. For starters, until 2022, the Eastern Front of World War II was the last time a war was fought on the territory of Ukraine, with much of the fighting taking place here. It was the culmination of immense wars and conflicts that Ukraine experienced throughout the early 20th century. After the end of World War II, the region would remain in relative peace and calm for several decades, which Putin’s invasion only just ended. This is not really a surprise, because as the modern world progresses, new opportunities continue to arise for conflicts to arise and the region containing Ukrainian land has clearly shown that it holds great potential for this. . Remember, it was in this vast, flat environment that the monumental violence and savagery of Hitler’s Eastern Front was possible.

We must also know that the Second World War, although fought for very traditional imperialist and national ambitions, will forever define the nature of Europe. He gave Europe its present shape – it was in 1945 that Ukraine’s current borders were fixed, for example, even though it would not be an independent nation for decades – and established lines of fracture in the fabric of European society which persists to this day. This is how WWII in Eastern Europe continues to resonate through today’s warfare and why people so widely look to its memory.

Russia and Ukraine are accused of being the heirs of Nazism. In the case of Russia, it’s because they invade another country, like Hitler did, and now the same security order created in response to World War II is responding to that war. Polish President Duda, for example, recently said that talking with Putin was like talking with Hitler. But the memory of World War II is also largely the driving force behind Russia’s campaign against Ukraine. Putin has used it to persuade the Russian people that they face dangerous foreign enemies as they did eighty years ago and his justification for invading Ukraine is to “denazify” the country. Indeed, anti-Russian nationalism was a strong force in Ukraine during the Soviet era and many Ukrainian nationalists sided with the Nazis during their occupation of Ukraine. This includes Ukraine’s most famous independence fighter, Stepan Bandera, and his movement and others like him even participated in the Holocaust.

After Ukraine gained independence in 1991, particular right-wing elements continued to be active in the country and there was much glorification of Ukrainian figures who were Nazi accomplices. The Ukrainian right generally considers their country’s worst period to be the Stalin-perpetrated Holodomor rather than the Nazi occupation, which alone is a stark divide between Ukraine and Russia. As such, Putin argued that pro-Nazi attitudes remain a driving force in Ukraine, even though Ukrainian collaboration with the Germans was driven by the force of momentary circumstances. Stepan Bandera was imprisoned by the Nazis from 1941 to 1944 because he refused to withdraw his appeal to the Ukrainian state. So why would Ukrainians carry on the Nazi legacy for decades after the collapse of Nazism? Putin also views Ukraine’s desire to pivot to the West as a Nazi decision.

Now, it is here that World War II has the most profound impact on what is happening today. Putin is waging war on Ukraine to prevent it from joining the European Union and NATO. What this has in common with Hitler’s invasion of Eastern Europe is that the two are a clash between an advancing West and a reactive East. At the beginning of the 20th century, Western Europe, as well as neighboring parts of Eastern Europe, were very advanced and developed. Western countries have been the source of all modernization and progress. Russia, on the other hand, although powerful, was far behind, struggling to modernize. It was a feudal country until 1861 and continued to stagnate under Tsarist rule. The 1917 revolution overthrew the monarchy and aristocracy and the vast empire adopted communism. Although opposed to each other, Tsarist Russia and Communist Russia were alternative models of the same thing, Russia’s incompatibility with the West. Under communism, the Soviet Union was first drawn into conflict with the fascist West during World War II and then with the liberal West during the Cold War. After the failure of the communist experiment, Russia continued to struggle to keep up and is still following a different path than the more advanced countries.

By contrast, Germany is part of the Western world, and Nazism was an odious alternative model of what the West could be, compared to the freedom and democracy spearheaded by France, Britain and America. When he came to power, Hitler inherited one of the most advanced and powerful countries in the world. There is a consistent theme regarding imperialism in the modern era, which is that nations take over places and societies less advanced than them. For example, in the 1930s, Japan was a highly industrialized country and China was not, so Japan invaded China in what it saw as the best way forward for East Asia. East. The European colonization of the world was the same. Hitler’s invasion of Russia was, in essence, the most extreme application of this principle. By seizing Russian territory in Europe, he must have felt, his nation could better use the region’s potential and bring it into the fold of modern progress, with all inhabitants subjugated by the Germans, of course, or annihilated.

The eastward expansion of the European Union and NATO over the past thirty years is essentially a peaceful and benign version of this. If Ukraine were to join these organizations, it would represent the West, which remains at the forefront of modern civilization, extending its sphere of influence into the eastern depths of Europe. Ukraine, like Russia, continues to face great challenges such as corruption and underdevelopment. As a result, westerners may end up taking over everything in Ukraine in order to bring the nation up to date as the nation is drastically reshaped. This could then potentially impact the political and social order in Russia, Belarus and Georgia. It is an order that in one way or another remains fundamentally opposed to the Western path, as shown by the rapid end of Kerensky’s democratic push in 1917, like that of Boris Yeltsin to some extent.

This must be why Putin is so alarmed. He must see the expansion of Western influence as a resumption of the same process that Hitler was pursuing and, therefore, pro-Western Ukrainians are like the Nazi collaborators before them. After experiencing the brutal Nazi invasion, Russians became very suspicious of the Western world during the Cold War, and they probably still are. Putin probably recognizes that just as the Soviet Union, due to its backwardness, was highly vulnerable to Nazi Germany’s military aggression, post-Soviet nations continue to be vulnerable to Western domination, which could have disruptive and perhaps unpredictable consequences for the order. of the civilization that exists in the kingdom belonging to Russia.

Raja Shahzeb Khan is an Islamabad-based political analyst and tweets at https://twitter.com/justinshahzebkh. This is the first part of his series The Ukraine War in Historical Perspective.

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NATO’s Baltic Blockade Opens New Front in War Against Russia https://iainabrach.org/2022/06/21/natos-baltic-blockade-opens-new-front-in-war-against-russia/ Tue, 21 Jun 2022 04:39:34 +0000 https://iainabrach.org/2022/06/21/natos-baltic-blockade-opens-new-front-in-war-against-russia/ On Monday, the Baltic state of Lithuania, a NATO member, imposed an effective blockade on Russia, preventing the transport of many goods, including steel and coal, between mainland Russia and the Russian enclave of Kaliningrad. . Traditionally, the imposition of a blockade has been considered an act of war. With this reckless provocation, the United […]]]>

On Monday, the Baltic state of Lithuania, a NATO member, imposed an effective blockade on Russia, preventing the transport of many goods, including steel and coal, between mainland Russia and the Russian enclave of Kaliningrad. .

Traditionally, the imposition of a blockade has been considered an act of war. With this reckless provocation, the United States and its NATO allies seek to push Russia into a military attack on NATO territory, which would lead to the invocation of Article V of the NATO Charter. NATO and a full-scale war with Russia.

Faced with a series of military setbacks on the ground in Ukraine, the United States, NATO and European powers are seeking to open a new northern front in the war.

Lithuanian officials have hinted that the decision to implement the blockade against Russia was taken in close consultation with other NATO members and Washington. “It’s not Lithuania doing anything, it’s the European sanctions that have started to work,” said Lithuanian Foreign Minister Gabrielius Landsbergis.

Responding to the blockade, the Russian Foreign Ministry bluntly warned: “If the transit of goods between the Kaliningrad region and the rest of the Russian Federation via Lithuania is not fully restored in the near future, Russia reserves the right to take action to protect its national interests. .”

A sharp warning must be made. The United States and the European powers, each facing a raging economic, social and political crisis and fearing a growing social movement of the working class, are recklessly stepping up a war that threatens the use of nuclear weapons.

The imposition of a blockade against Russia by a NATO member comes just days after a series of highly provocative statements by European military and civilian leaders.

In an internal message to military service members, Sir Patrick Sanders, the Chief of the General Staff, said: “There is now a burning imperative to forge an army capable of fighting alongside our allies and defeating the Russia in battle. In a chilling allusion to the First and Second World Wars, he concluded: “We are the generation that must prepare the army to fight again in Europe.

Speaking to the German newspaper Bild am Sonntag, NATO Secretary General Jens Stoltenberg said: “We must not stop supporting Ukraine. … we have to prepare for the fact that it could take years.

Writing Saturday in the London timeBritish Prime Minister Boris Johnson has called on NATO to “finish this war on the terms that President Zelensky has set out”, i.e. to reconquer Donbass and Crimea, which Russia considers part of his territory.

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As death toll climbs, NATO chief warns Russian war on Ukraine could ‘last for years’ https://iainabrach.org/2022/06/19/as-death-toll-climbs-nato-chief-warns-russian-war-on-ukraine-could-last-for-years/ Sun, 19 Jun 2022 15:06:37 +0000 https://iainabrach.org/2022/06/19/as-death-toll-climbs-nato-chief-warns-russian-war-on-ukraine-could-last-for-years/ It’s been nearly four months since Russian President Vladimir Putin launched an invasion of Ukraine and peace talks have stalled, the NATO chief warned on Sunday that the war could drag on for years . “We have to be prepared for this to last for years,” NATO Secretary General Jens Stoltenberg told the German newspaper. […]]]>

It’s been nearly four months since Russian President Vladimir Putin launched an invasion of Ukraine and peace talks have stalled, the NATO chief warned on Sunday that the war could drag on for years .

“We have to be prepared for this to last for years,” NATO Secretary General Jens Stoltenberg told the German newspaper. Bild am Sonntag.

“We must not relax our support for Ukraine. Even if the costs are high, not only for military support, but also because of rising energy and food prices,” he said. he continued. “But: this is not comparable to the price that Ukrainians have to pay every day with many lives.”

“And if Putin learns from this war that he can just continue as he did after the 2008 war in Georgia and the occupation of Crimea in 2014,” Stoltenberg added, “then we will pay a much higher price. raised”.

Stoltenberg’s comments followed Friday’s report from The Washington Post that “the United States and its allies are preparing for a protracted conflict in Ukraine”.

US President Joe Biden announced on Wednesday that Washington “is providing an additional $1 billion in security assistance to Ukraine, including additional artillery and coastal defense weapons, as well as ammunition for artillery and advanced rocket systems that the Ukrainians need to support their defensive operations in the Donbass.”

The Job pointed out that “European nations, including Germany and Slovakia, have unveiled their own shipments of advanced weapons, including helicopters and multiple launch rocket systems.”

Critics continue to warn, as anti-war columnist Ted Snider wrote for Responsible mindset earlier this month that sending more advanced weapons that threaten Russia “could not only prolong the war and cause more suffering for the Ukrainians by extending the current battlefield, it could also ultimately put Ukraine in a weaker position at the negotiating table”.

Aiming in particular at the all-Democratic congressional delegation from Massachusetts, Jason Pramas of DiggingBoston this month brought to light the lack of public discussion or debate about the handing over of billions of dollars to Ukraine, including among “politicians who have criticized the scandalously huge US military budget and who have fought with doggedly trying to increase the budget for national social programs to benefit working families instead”. “

As Pramas wrote for Common dreams:

Yet does the mass delegation have no criticism to make against a $40 billion package that will inject far more money into the treasuries of major US military contractors than into the humanitarian aid the Ukrainian people desperately need?

Is there no problem giving so much money to a foreign power engaged in a regional conflict, no matter how justified, when there are so many unmet human needs here in the United States?

Is there any risk in supplying larger, longer range and more powerful weapon systems to the Ukrainian military when their use could trigger a nuclear response from Russia that would quickly and inevitably lead to a global conflagration that would put an end to human civilization?

Apparently not.

American scholar and dissident Noam Chomsky, in a recent radio interview, noted that the United States and other NATO countries sending weapons to Ukraine was nothing new.

“Beginning in 2014, the United States and NATO began to flood Ukraine with weapons — advanced weapons, military training, joint military exercises, measures to integrate Ukraine into the military command of the NATO. There is no secret about this. It was pretty open,” Chomsky said, adding that Stoltenberg recently “bragged about it.”

“So criminality and stupidity on the Kremlin side, harsh provocation on the American side. That’s the context that led to this,” Chomsky said of the war. “Can we try to end this horror? Or should we try to perpetuate it? These are the choices.

“There’s only one way to end it. It’s diplomacy,” he said. “Now diplomacy, by definition, means that both sides accept it. They don’t like it, but they accept it as the least bad option.”

In the absence of diplomatic negotiations – which Russian Foreign Ministry spokeswoman Maria Zakharova publicly blamed on the United States earlier this week – bodies continue to pile up in Ukraine. The New York Times released a special report on the war dead on Saturday.

About a fifth of Ukraine is now under Russian control, and “the Ukrainian army is suffering heavy losses. According to the government’s own estimates, as many as 200 soldiers die every day,” said the Time reported. “In April, Western countries estimated that Russia had lost around 15,000 troops in Ukraine; on Friday, Ukraine estimated 33,000.”

The newspaper also addressed the unknown but significant civilian death toll:

In its latest updates, the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights said 4,509 civilians had been killed in the conflict. But it is clear that many thousands more have been killed. Ukraine’s police chief Ihor Klymenko said last week that prosecutors had opened criminal charges “for the deaths of more than 12,000 people found, among others, in mass graves”.

And in Mariupol, the Black Sea city razed by Russian bombardment, Ukrainian officials in exile said examinations of mass graves using satellite images, testimonies and other evidence had led them to believe that at least 22,000 people had been killed, and possibly thousands more. .

“Children are not protected from indiscriminate violence,” said the Time Noted. “The UN agency for the protection of children in emergencies has estimated that at least three children have died every day since the start of the war in February. This is only an estimate.”

Amnesty International has also released a new report highlighting civilian deaths. The rights group said on Monday that Russian forces’ use of cluster munitions in Kharkiv, Ukraine’s second-largest city, “constitutes war crimes”.

“The repeated use of widely banned cluster munitions is shocking and further evidence of the utter disregard for civilian lives,” said Donatella Rovera, Amnesty’s Senior Crisis Response Adviser. “The Russian forces responsible for these horrific attacks must be held accountable for their actions, and the victims and their families must receive full reparations.”

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Gilberts: Zion was once an active and thriving community https://iainabrach.org/2022/06/17/gilberts-zion-was-once-an-active-and-thriving-community/ Fri, 17 Jun 2022 14:27:31 +0000 https://iainabrach.org/2022/06/17/gilberts-zion-was-once-an-active-and-thriving-community/ Breadcrumb Links Opinion Column Last week we told you the story of Zion Church, at the junction of Mull Road, and what is now called Pinehurst Line. Today we would like to expand on that story and talk about the community that was traditionally called Zion. Jim and Lisa Gilbert Ellwood Shreve / The Daily […]]]>

Last week we told you the story of Zion Church, at the junction of Mull Road, and what is now called Pinehurst Line. Today we would like to expand on that story and talk about the community that was traditionally called Zion.

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Last week we told you the story of Zion Church, at the junction of Mull Road, and what is now called Pinehurst Line. Today we would like to expand on that story and talk about the community that was traditionally called Zion.

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Again, we thank Bob McCully for the information on which these columns are based. Bob has very generously provided us with a folder of material that speaks to this region where his family has been based for 180 years. He and his wife very graciously hosted us for an evening last summer and showed us around their historic home near the church.

One of the things Bob showed us was a few small pieces of wood from his property. He explained how in the 1980s they were digging on McGregor’s Creek, which runs through his farm. After work (he was a primary school principal at the time) he went to see the hole they had dug and collected some wood from the bottom of this very deep hole. Later, this wood was carbon dated to around 9,000 years old. This is proof that this land is ancient, despite the fact that European settlement only began in the 1840s.

Further evidence was offered in the 1980s when an archaeological dig was completed a little further down McGregor’s Creek, but in the same general area. Although I don’t have the results of those digs and can’t say for sure, I believe the settlement they found was determined to be around 1,000 years old. It is no surprise that the road which we call Pinehurst Line, but which was known for many years as the Creek Road, is considered one of the oldest roads in what is now Chatham- Kent.

As I mentioned, European settlement began in the 1840s, which is quite late for Chatham-Kent. Most areas, especially those near waterways, began in the first and second decades of the 1800s.

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Reverend Alvin Armstrong, whose article “The History of the Fellowship of Zion” which we use as the main source for this column, states that the reason was the fact that many Crown and clergy reserves were located in this region. It was not until 1836 that the Canada Company was able to buy these reserves and resell them to the settlers.

One of the earliest evidences of European ‘civilization’ appeared in 1835, and it was a tavern operated by a Mr. White, who squatted on land acquired a few years later by Cyrus McCully, the pioneer farm owner Bob’s centenary. Cyrus was the brother of Jonathan McCully, one of the Fathers of Confederation, originally from Nova Scotia. He bought this parcel because it included McGregor’s Creek, which he wanted to use for watering cattle. Later, he donated land for the district’s first school.

A distinctive group that came to occupy the lands north of this crossroads came from Alsace-Lorraine. Names like Gillier, Zinc, Zimmer and Gerber came from the same region of the motherland, and they came to the area between Blind Fourth and Fairview Line, centered around Mull Road. These names are still common in this region today.

At the time of the 1861 census, most houses were still made of logs, with a few frame houses and one brick house, that of Cyrus McCully. Most farms were 40-60% cleared and common crops included wheat, rye, oats and garden vegetables. Most also owned dairy cows, as well as cattle, sheep and pigs. The people who lived here were mostly self-sufficient.

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This mixed farming, which was the norm throughout Ontario in the 19th century, continued for many years, and it was not until the second half of the 20th century that these farms took on the appearance that they still have today. Tractors started appearing in the 1920s, but they didn’t completely replace horses for many years.

The land, at that time, had been almost completely cleared, but a small piece of land (about 20 acres) still remains wooded. This part, which many refer to as McCully’s Bush, contains a hill which is the highest ground between the ‘ridge’ to the south (think Ridgetown) and the Thames River. An ancient Aboriginal cemetery still exists in this bush.

In the latter part of the 19th century and the early years of the 20th century, the community of Sion contained many small factories and shops. There were several cheese-making businesses, at least one blacksmith shop, and many other businesses associated with agriculture.

An industry that still exists today began early (1880) when James O’Keefe opened a gravel pit. It was sold to Robert S. Adams in 1910, and his son Earl really put Adams Sand and Gravel on the map.

The post office mentioned last week, which has been named ‘Pinehurst’ by the government, was established in 1890. Like many other small rural post offices, someone met the train, in this case in Mull , a few miles south, and pick up mail for delivery in Pinehurst. This practice continued until 1914, when rural mail delivery began and the post office was no longer needed.

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Social activities at “Zion” were centered around the church, as discussed last week, and the school across the road. Sports teams (baseball, soccer) faced teams from McKay’s Corners and Kent Bridge. The parish hall was the meeting place for groups like the foresters, and the ladies of the church were famous for their religious suppers. People came from places like Chatham and Charing Cross, and the women were able to raise quite a bit of money for their various endeavors through these popular gatherings.

Today, the community of Sion no longer exists. The closing of the school started the slide, but the improvement of the means of transport, and the disappearance of the family farm have both contributed to the depopulation of the countryside. However, there are still a few old families living on their farms, and the new community of Lake Morningstar means that, in this particular case, there are still a considerable number of people living here. But without an active church or school, or any other community building (post office, library, village store), the possibility of real, live social interaction is lost forever.

Too bad – no amount of social media can ever replace real human contact.

I wonder what future historians will say.

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Russia’s Asian energy pivot is the shape of things to come https://iainabrach.org/2022/06/15/russias-asian-energy-pivot-is-the-shape-of-things-to-come/ Wed, 15 Jun 2022 06:25:26 +0000 https://iainabrach.org/2022/06/15/russias-asian-energy-pivot-is-the-shape-of-things-to-come/ An oil pump jack in Almetyevsk district, Republic of Tatarstan, Russia, May 10, 2021. /VCG An oil pump jack in Almetyevsk district, Republic of Tatarstan, Russia, May 10, 2021. /VCG Editor’s note: Andrew Korybko is an American political analyst based in Moscow. The article reflects the views of the author and not necessarily those of […]]]>

An oil pump jack in Almetyevsk district, Republic of Tatarstan, Russia, May 10, 2021. /VCG

An oil pump jack in Almetyevsk district, Republic of Tatarstan, Russia, May 10, 2021. /VCG

Editor’s note: Andrew Korybko is an American political analyst based in Moscow. The article reflects the views of the author and not necessarily those of CGTN.

Bloomberg recently reported that maritime oil shipments from Russia to Asia now make up about half of all such exports, with China and India being its main buyers. In fact, the Clean Energy Research Center also reported that Russia’s oil exports to India have increased from just 1% to 18% in total. This figure is politically significant as it shows India’s determination to achieve strategic autonomy from the West in the face of US pressure to cut ties with Russia.

This is the shape of things to come. First, there is no doubt that what many have described as the “Asian Century” is already here after the rise of China and India as major countries with global influence. Second, this trend has accelerated in light of recent events, particularly the West’s US-led anti-Russian sanctions, which in turn have catalyzed its robust Asian-targeted pivot. And third, the world is rapidly bifurcating between the “Golden Billion” and the Global South.

This last observation deserves to be deepened because few have yet recognized it. The ongoing global systemic transition towards multipolarity is jointly led by China, Russia and India, which cooperate together under the Russia-India-China (RIC) format. Although Russia was historically considered part of Western civilization, her European peers seemed not to accept her as one of them. This is why Russia today sees itself as Eurasian, or as a European-Asian hybrid civilization.

Moreover, Russia has been the target of Western countries over the centuries, being mistreated in the same way as they have done to the countries of the South. The only difference between them is that Russia was strong enough to resist these aggressions while some other countries were not.

Accepting today’s Russia as part of the Global South is conceptually crucial, as it makes it easy to see the main fault line of what many see as the New Cold War. This global competition is taking place during the global systemic transition. The US-led “Golden Billion” in the West wants to preserve its declining unipolar hegemony at all costs while the global South led by China, Russia and India wants an equal, just and stable multipolar system.

The undeniable geo-economic trend is that Asia-Pacific is already at the center of globalization, with this region taking on even more importance in recent months as anti-Russian sanctions backfire by destabilizing Western economies. The forced “decoupling” of the EU from Russia under US pressure has caused a new economic crisis before the bloc has even had time to recover from the previous one caused by the COVID-19 pandemic.

Cooking oil on shelves in a Tesco store in Ashford, Surrey, UK, April 23, 2022. /VCG

Cooking oil on shelves in a Tesco store in Ashford, Surrey, UK, April 23, 2022. /VCG

Russia, by comparison, is doing quite well. Instead of going bankrupt as the ‘Golden Billion’ predicted when it decided to quickly phase out its energy imports, including the recent sanctions banning the shipping of oil by sea, Russia has simply redirected its exports to the ‘Asia Pacific. India, one of its main strategic partners, has rushed to help Moscow maintain macroeconomic stability by buying its oil.

The mutually beneficial and complementary energy cooperation between Russia, India and China is part of their macroeconomic cooperation aimed at gradually transforming the hitherto Western-centric model of globalization into a non-Western and multipolar one. These three big countries have massive economies and can therefore have a powerful impact on the international economic system. This is in fact something Russian Duma Speaker Vyacheslav Volodin also recently acknowledged.

Write about Telegram last week he noted that “the group of eight countries not participating in the sanctions wars – China, India, Russia, Indonesia, Brazil, Mexico, Iran, Turkey – in terms of GDP at purchasing power parity is ahead of the old group by 24.4%,” by which he meant the G7. In other words, the countries of the South are merging into a unified network of economies that collectively outrank the Western G7.

Russia’s Asian energy pivot is the most egregious macroeconomic example of recent months, but there is much more at play behind it all. China, Russia and India lead the Global South as the vast majority of humanity works together to build a more equal, just and stable world order.

(If you would like to contribute and have specific expertise, please contact us at opinions@cgtn.com. Follow @thouse_opinions Twitter for the latest comments in CGTN’s Opinion section.)

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Peter the Great: Putin clarifies his imperial claims https://iainabrach.org/2022/06/13/peter-the-great-putin-clarifies-his-imperial-claims/ Mon, 13 Jun 2022 07:01:00 +0000 https://iainabrach.org/2022/06/13/peter-the-great-putin-clarifies-his-imperial-claims/ Placeholder while loading article actions You are reading an excerpt from Today’s WorldView newsletter. Sign up to get the rest for freefeaturing news from around the world, interesting ideas and opinions you need to know, delivered to your inbox every day of the week. Last September, Russian President Vladimir Putin received a history lesson from […]]]>
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Last September, Russian President Vladimir Putin received a history lesson from a schoolboy. Putin was lecturing a gathering of students in the Far Eastern city of Vladivostok on the merits of possessing “knowledge of the past” to have a “better understanding of today”. In an exchange, he invoked the great legacy of Russian Tsar Peter the Great, who he said defeated the Swedes at the Battle of Poltava in the Seven Years’ War against Sweden in 1709.

Except that wasn’t entirely accurate, as Russian President Nikanor Tolstykh, a student from the Arctic Circle town of Vorkuta, reminded. Russia fought Sweden in what is known as the Great Northern War, which lasted over two decades from 1700 to 1721. The Seven Years’ War was a sprawling global conflict later in that same century in in which Russia and Sweden were actually on the same side. .

The day after this light fact-checking, the headmistress of Tolstykh’s school denounced her student’s “arrogance” in the local media. In a separate interview, Tolstykh’s teacher admitted that she wouldn’t have had the temerity to contradict Putin. A Kremlin spokesman insisted that Putin had an “absolutely phenomenal knowledge of history”, but that “he is always ready to listen to such corrections, whether they come from a child or from a a specialist”.

Last Thursday, Putin showed that he had not forgotten this correction. At an event commemorating the 350th anniversary of Peter’s birth, he explicitly compared himself to the expanding tsar of the empire and celebrated his years of conquests.

Russia’s VE Day marks a war of competing nationalisms

Peter the Great fought the Great Northern War for 21 yearsPutin said. after visiting an exhibition honoring Peter. “It looks like he was at war with Sweden, he took something from them. He didn’t take anything from them, he came back [what was Russia’s].”

The Russian president then alluded to the ongoing “special operation” in Ukraine, which he and his state’s propaganda arms also presented as a war of restoration and return – no matter that the invasion violating sovereignty marks a serious violation of international law and has led to billions of dollars in damage to Ukrainian cities, the deaths of thousands of people and disruptions to the global economy that put millions more at risk.

“What was that [Peter] Do?” Putin said. “Take back and strengthen. That’s what he did.

Peter’s wars and territorial expansion helped shape the contours of the later Russian empire, pushing its borders to areas of Finland to the north and the Black Sea to the south. The Battle of Poltava cited by Putin saw Russian forces deliver a historic blow to Sweden’s continental ambitions in Europe. A few years earlier, Peter established his west-facing capital of St. Petersburg on the Baltic Sea, built on the site of a captured Swedish fortress.

Soviet flags continue to fly over Russian-occupied Ukraine

Putin has for years worshiped the 18th century monarch and keeps a bronze statue of the Tsar above his ceremonial desk in the Kremlin’s Cabinet Room. In a 2019 interview with the Financial Times, he said Peter “will live as long as his cause lives”. At the time, the British newspaper interpreted this “cause” as preserving Moscow’s “sphere influence” along the borders of an expanding NATO bloc.

But the ongoing war has revealed something deeper in Putin’s psyche: a narrative of a mythical fate that supersedes any geopolitical imperative and has set Russia on a bloody collision course with the West. Ukraine for Putin is an inseparable part of Russian history; this is where Orthodox Christianity entered Russian culture more than a millennium ago and thus a kind of cradle of Russian civilization. He preceded the invasion of Ukraine with a discourse fueled by historical animosity, raging against Bolshevik divisions of Russian lands while rejecting Ukraine’s de facto right to sovereignty.

“Although this grievance appears to be situated in what Putin called the tragedy of the Soviet collapse, its imperial inspiration extends even deeper into the country’s past,” wrote Lynne Hartnett, a historian of Russia at the University. Villanova, in the Washington Post. “As Putin described in a 2012 speech, the rebirth of Russian national consciousness requires Russians to connect with their past and realize that they have ‘a common and continuous history spanning over 1,000 years. “. ”

Others pointed to historical legacies that Putin might not welcome. “Like Putin, Peter wanted to build Russian military might, and not only reformed his army, but built his navy, just as Putin spent 20 years modernizing his army,” Mark Galeotti wrote in the Spectator. “In the process, although he started the slide of the Russian state towards insolvency and ensured that he would wage wars not only in the northwest but also in the south, against the Ottomans.”

Russia, of course, is not the only country where nationalists in power get carried away by such a grievance. The illiberal Hungarian Prime Minister Viktor Orban complains about the borders demarcated by the World War I Treaty of Trianon and the loss of a “greater Hungary” in the surrounding Balkans. Turkish nationalists, meanwhile, lament the Treaty of Sèvres, which tore apart the defeated Ottoman Empire and reduced the Turkish footprint in the Middle East. Hindu nationalists in India raise the idea of ​​”Akhand Bharat”, a united Indian subcontinent defined by the historical scope of Hindu culture.

Political scientists would label these impulses as “revengeful” or “irredentist,” with politicians stoking their supporters with rhetoric about lost lands and communities of brethren separated by unjust borders. But Putin’s revanchism, unlike that of most other right-wing nationalists elsewhere, has now caused a geopolitical conflagration and has a growing body of undercurrents.

Putin’s critics point to his explicit adherence to Peter the Great’s conquests as evidence of the temerity to offer concessions to the Kremlin now. The war, they argue, was not about NATO expansion or a ludicrous belief in the need to “denazify” Kyiv, but the uncompromising zeal of a 21st century imperialist.

“Putin’s confessions of land seizures and his comparison with Peter the Great prove that there was no ‘conflict’, only the bloody seizure of the country under contrived pretexts of popular genocide”, tweeted Mykhailo Podolyak, adviser to the Ukrainian government. “We shouldn’t be talking about [Russia] “saving face”, but on its immediate de-imperialization.

There is no need to look further than Poltava, site of Peter’s famous victory over Sweden, but now a place that is in Ukraine. Local authorities did not welcome Putin’s invasion. Instead, a court in the Poltava region last month found two detained Russian soldiers guilty of war crimes.

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Chinese research on Xinjiang mummies seen as promoting revisionist history — Radio Free Asia https://iainabrach.org/2022/06/11/chinese-research-on-xinjiang-mummies-seen-as-promoting-revisionist-history-radio-free-asia/ Sat, 11 Jun 2022 13:39:00 +0000 https://iainabrach.org/2022/06/11/chinese-research-on-xinjiang-mummies-seen-as-promoting-revisionist-history-radio-free-asia/ A new Chinese study of the ancient populations of Xinjiang claims to show that modern residents descend from a mix of ethnicities, but scientists and experts in the region have warned that the results are being used to support the policy of forced assimilation of China towards the predominantly Muslim Uyghurs. The study by the […]]]>

A new Chinese study of the ancient populations of Xinjiang claims to show that modern residents descend from a mix of ethnicities, but scientists and experts in the region have warned that the results are being used to support the policy of forced assimilation of China towards the predominantly Muslim Uyghurs.

The study by the Chinese Academy of Sciences’ Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology is based on 201 ancient human genomes from 39 different archaeological sites in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (XUAR).

Scientists have analyzed the genetic composition, migration and formation of ancient inhabitants of Xinjiang during the Bronze Age, which lasted 5,000 to 3,000 years, the Iron Age, which lasted between 3,000 and 2 000 years, and the historical era, which began about 2,000 years ago.

They published their findings in the April edition of the journal Science in an article titled “Bronze and Iron Age Population Movements Underlie the Population History of Xinjiang”.

The report states that the ancestral population of the region in the Bronze Age was linked to four different major ancestors – those from the Tarim Basin, which includes present-day Xinjian; Central Asia; and the central and eastern Eurasian steppes.

“Archaeological and mitochondrial studies have suggested that BA [Bronze Age] the people and cultures of Xinjiang are not derived from any indigenous Neolithic substrate, but rather from a mixture of West and East Eurasian peoples, whereas BA burial traditions suggest connections to North Eurasian steppe cultures and the Central Asian BMAC Civilization,” the report states, referring to the Central Asian Archaeological Complex of Bactria-Margiana (BMAC) to the south.

Further mixing between Middle and Late Bronze Age steppe cultures continued into the Late Bronze and Iron Ages, along with an influx of East and Central Asian ancestry, indicates The report.

“Populations from the historic era show mixed and diverse ancestries similar to those of present-day populations in Xinjiang,” the report said. “These findings document the influence that East and West Eurasian populations have had over time in different regions of Xinjiang.”

The Chinese Academy of Sciences study comes at a time when the Chinese government has stepped up its assimilation of predominantly Muslim Uyghurs to instill a common identity in Uyghurs with other ethnicities in the country. The government rejects claims that the minority ethnic group has its own history, culture, language and way of life.

The beauty of Xiaohe, a mummy discovered in the Tarim Basin in northwest China, is featured in the “Secrets of the Silk Road” exhibition at the China Museum of Archeology and Anthropology. ‘University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania on February 18, 2011. Credit: Associated Press

“You have to think carefully”

After the start of the mass internment campaign targeting Uyghurs and other Turkish minorities in April 2017, Chinese archaeological and anthropological research in Xinjiang has entered a new phase. The XUAR Communist Party Committee has set a political goal for archaeological research to combat “separatism” and stressed that cultural relics should serve the concept that Xinjiang has always been an inseparable part of China.

On March 22, 2017, then-Party Secretary Chen Quanguo said at a conference on archaeological work that “archaeological work is necessary to establish and advance socialist values ​​in Xinjiang, to deepen the patriotic education and to fight against separatist ideas”.

But a US-based expert on ancient Central Asian population genetics says the report’s findings do not differ significantly from findings on the Bronze Age published recently by a group of international researchers.

Vagheesh Narasimhan, an assistant professor in the Department of Integrative Biology and the Department of Statistics and Data Science at the University of Texas at Austin, told RFA that the findings of the Science article are similar to those published late last year by international researchers.

“A few months ago there was a report of the sequencing of some Bronze Age Tarim Basin mummies,” he said. “In this document [from April 1], they also added 200 genomes from different time periods from all over Xinjiang. They co-analyzed the data from the previous analysis with the analysis in this paper, and they tried to draw conclusions by combining the data from the international team’s previous paper with the data from this group.

Narasimhan said both studies found similar genetic ancestry in Xinjiang since the Bronze Age.

But he said the results do not refute the idea that Uyghurs are a distinct ethnicity.

“You can’t think two groups are the same just because they have common ancestry; in this case, every person in the world would have a common ancestry from Africa,” he said. “We have to think carefully about the population they are actually using as a reference.”

In his analysis of the Iron Age population of Xinjiang, the Science The article points out that the iron materials found at this time were related to the Saks, or Scythians, an important nomadic culture at the time.

He also notes that many archaeological finds related to the group have been found in the Ili River Valley and the Tarim Basin in Xinjiang, and that a diverse conglomeration of many nomadic tribes, including the Saks, Huns, Paziriks and the Taghars, appeared in the region.

The Science the article also indicates that among these groups, the Saks were the descendants of the Andronova, Srubnaya and Sintashta peoples of the later Bronze Age periods and that the other ancestors of the Saks are related to the populations of Bayqal Shamanka and Bactria – Margiana and are related to the Hotan language, which was part of the Indo-European family. But around 2,200 years before, the area had become a point of conflict between the Yuezhi (Yawchi or Yurchi), Huns, Han and Turks.

“Thus, Xinjiang represents a key area for studying the past confluence and coexistence of populations with dynamic cultural, linguistic and genetic backgrounds,” the report said.

Members of the media look at an infant mummy discovered in the Tarim Basin in northwest China during the exhibition
Members of the media look at an infant mummy discovered in the Tarim Basin in northwest China during the ‘Secrets of the Silk Road’ exhibit at the Museum of Archeology and Anthropology in China. ‘University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, February 18, 2011. Source: Associated Press

Suspicious corpses

A Uyghur expert questioned the premises underlying the Chinese researchers’ analysis.

Erkin Ekrem, an associate professor of history at Hacettepe University in Turkey, told RFA that China is attempting a revisionist history that eradicates the region’s unique characteristics by describing East Turkestan, the Uyghur’s preferred name for the XUAR, as a Métis region.

“I’m a little suspicious,” he said. “What kind of corpses exactly were given to the researchers?” We don’t know at the moment. »

“In its research on races – not nations, but races – in East Turkestan, China always says that the inhabitants of the region are of Indo-German, Caucasian, Siberian, even Han and Mongoloid type,” he said. -he declares. “It’s as if they are portraying East Turkestan as a place where every race and every nation blends together, as if they are working to eliminate the distinctiveness of this place.”

Ekrem has also argued that Chinese scholars’ mention of the Hans, along with the Huns and Turks, as peoples who influenced the legacy of the region’s ancient population is historically inaccurate.

Neither the Han nor later dynasties of China had populations in the region who would have been able to influence local populations, he said.

“There are no archaeological or historical sources that support what the Chinese are saying,” Ekrem said.

“The concept of people is different from the concept of race as studied through DNA, he said. same people, because peoples mix over time. This is the nature of history. To say [what China is saying] is to mix nationalist notions with historical notions, and to put them at the service of nationalism.

Jennifer Ring (C) and Hu Guizhen (L) examine the beauty of Xiaohe, a 3,800-year-old mummy discovered in the Tarim Basin in northwest China, during the exhibition
Jennifer Ring (C) and Hu Guizhen (L) examine the beauty of Xiaohe, a 3,800-year-old mummy discovered in the Tarim Basin in northwest China at the ‘Secrets of the Silk’ exhibition Road: Mystery Mummies from China” at the Bowers Museum in Santa Ana, California, March 24, 2010. Credit: Associated Press

“Very problematic”

German researcher Adrian Zenz, who provided crucial evidence to a 2021 Uyghur court on Chinese government atrocities against Uyghurs and efforts to reduce Xinjiang’s predominantly Muslim population, told RFA that the findings of the article , which are politically motivated, would not be publishable in an appropriate peer-reviewed scholarly journal or context.

“But the Chinese do it themselves and [do] their own study,” he said. “That could, of course, be looked at in detail by a Western expert, and I’m sure we’d have some interesting conclusions about that.”

“These efforts they are carrying out are, in my view, obviously very problematic, all designed to prove Xi Jinping’s strategy for Xinjiang, to assimilate ethnic groups,” said Zenz, who was sanctioned by the Chinese government for his research on Xinjiang.

James Millward, a history professor at Georgetown University who specializes in Central Asia, the Silk Road and Xinjiang, dismissed claims by Chinese scholars that modern XUAR has been part of China since the Antiquity.

“People traveled either through the northern steppes, across the plains, [or] they traveled along desert roads to oases in what is now southern Xinjiang,” he told RFA. “And then there was a significant amount of travel that Silk Road mythology tends to remember.”

“There is also a lot of exchange of people and a lot of different languages ​​were represented.

Millward compared Xinjiang during the medieval period to Grand Central Station in New York and Heathrow Airport in London.

“People [went] through there on their way to other places in all different directions, and that left a legacy of great cultural diversity that is reflected in those different languages ​​and different scripts that we recorded there.

Translated by FRG Uyghur. Written in English by Roseanne Gerin.

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Panel on the message of anti-Semitism: Speak up, fight back https://iainabrach.org/2022/06/09/panel-on-the-message-of-anti-semitism-speak-up-fight-back/ Thu, 09 Jun 2022 16:48:52 +0000 https://iainabrach.org/2022/06/09/panel-on-the-message-of-anti-semitism-speak-up-fight-back/ (JNS) The main message that came out of a panel on anti-Semitism is that Jews everywhere can make a difference, and that everyone – Jews and non-Jews – can and should fight against the resurgent scourge of anti-Semitism. The discussion at the Menachem Begin Heritage Center in Jerusalem – organized by the Tel Aviv International […]]]>

(JNS) The main message that came out of a panel on anti-Semitism is that Jews everywhere can make a difference, and that everyone – Jews and non-Jews – can and should fight against the resurgent scourge of anti-Semitism.

The discussion at the Menachem Begin Heritage Center in Jerusalem – organized by the Tel Aviv International Fair, the World Values ​​Network and JIC Israel – brought together Natan Sharansky, a world-renowned Soviet dissident, human rights activist, politician Israeli and former Chairman of the Executive. the Jewish Agency for Israel; former Israeli Ambassador to the United States Ron Dermer; and Rabbi Shmuley Boteach. Speakers discussed the origins of anti-Semitism, its history and root causes, and what can be done to prevent the phenomenon from spreading.

Noting how he had been warned by others to walk the streets of Hebron or the Arab market in Jerusalem, Boteach began the discussion by pondering the extent of anti-Semitism in Israel itself and what can be done about it.

Sharansky, who spent nine years in prison in the former Soviet Union, retorted that he did not believe he was afraid to walk around Jerusalem with a kipah talks about anti-Semitism, saying he’s much more concerned with the idea that Jews can’t walk freely with a yarmulke in the free world.

“Terror makes no difference,” he said. “Even if you are an Arab living in Jerusalem, you have the same chance of falling victim to those who really want to destroy Israel and make Israel non-existent.”

Dermer said he thinks anti-Semitism in Israel “is a problem, and you have a mix of nationalistic reasons why these attacks are happening.”

“You have the import of what used to be European anti-Semitism in the Middle East in general and the Palestinian world in particular, the demonization of Jews and these crazy ideas against Jews,” he said. “That has changed in the wider Arab world in Dubai, the Gulf and elsewhere, but it is still an acute problem within Palestinian society.”

Responding to Boteach’s question on how to differentiate between legitimate and illegitimate criticism of Israel, Sharansky said there was a need to deploy his methodology which he calls “The Three Ds”: demonization, double standard and denial of Israel’s right to exist.

People who use any or all of these elements, he pointed out, can be considered illegitimate critics of Israel.

Boteach turned to colleges, wondering if Jews had “lost the ability to directly influence non-Jewish students on American campuses.”

According to Sharansky, non-Jewish students are influenced by Jews who are afraid to show solidarity with Israel. “The best way to influence non-Jewish students is to bring home pride and a sense of meaning in their Jewish life, where they are connected to Israel,” he said.

Dermer added that there is a need to “restore the feeling that it can no longer be open to Jews. You have to fight. You have to make people pay a consequence for going after the Jews.

“No one should be surprised by the return of anti-Semitism,” he said. “And if you are surprised, that indicates historical ignorance. The real strongholds of anti-Semitism come from the intellectual classes. I don’t think you’re going to end anti-Semitism, but you have to fight it. And now we have a sovereign state to fight, and I hope the Jews of the United States and other Diaspora communities will stand proud and fight back because we now have the power to fight back, and we should use it.

“Jews have the power to defend themselves”

Sharansky also noted that not only is there a silent majority of Jews, but there is a small group of “very vocal intellectual leaders among the Jews who deny Israel’s right to exist.” We must mobilize the silent majority of Jews against them,” he said.

Responding to an audience member’s question about whether Israel should teach the world more about the Holocaust, Sharansky replied, “Of course we should. As much as the world wants to hear, even if the world doesn’t want to hear, we must teach. People say the Holocaust is a thing of the past. So we have to show again and again why this is not a thing of the past.

Dermer replied, “We must learn the lessons of the Holocaust, that Jews must have the power to defend themselves.”

Another audience member asked what individuals can do to fight anti-Semitism.

Sharansky said, “Start with the Jews. Try to convince them that it is very important for their own survival. Then it’s easy to switch to non-Jews as soon as you have Jews on your side.

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He explained that it is important and necessary to convince Jews who support the anti-Israel BDS movement why it is dangerous to their own survival.

Dermer suggested people buy Sharansky’s book fear no evil because readers can then understand how one individual can stand up to anti-Semitism and change the world.

“Everyone has to fight in their little corner of the country, and you never know what kind of impact that has on Jews or non-Jews,” he said. “The problem we have with a lot of young Jews is that the appeal of the universal is very strong. And it is very difficult for them to appreciate the particular. “What we need to do is make them realize that the values ​​they most admire in Western civilization actually come from the Jews.”

Dermer highlighted the cause of social justice that is sweeping America.

“Now there is no major social justice statement. The idea of ​​embracing widows abroad or caring for widows and orphans – all of that comes from the Jews, and most young Jews don’t know that,” he said.

“We have the ability to engage young people with all the great ideas of Judaism and make them realize that the foundation of the values ​​they hold most dear actually come from the Jews,” he continued. “Then they will be proud of their Jewish heritage and tradition, which will make them better able to fight anti-Semites.”

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