Prospects for electric vehicles in 2022. The history of development
Most experts agree that people will buy more and more electric cars every year. You can buy a used electric car from zcarsales.com. Already, the auto industry has passed a sort of tipping point, and it has become impossible to abandon the development of electric cars. Computing power will continue to grow and artificial intelligence will become more and more advanced, which will undoubtedly affect the growth in the number of electric motor cars around the world.
With a high degree of probability, it can be said that a world without internal combustion engine cars is inevitable: when human civilization completely abandons this technology, it is only a matter of time.
Tesla’s first production and relatively affordable electric car was introduced over 2 years ago. The popularity of electric cars is increasing in many countries, however, it is still far from mass exploitation, although the volume of sales is increasing slowly but surely. Sooner or later, cars with electric motors will crowd out models with internal combustion engines.
History of creation
People have long thought of using electricity as a force capable of driving vehicles. The world’s first electric car appeared before the creation of the internal combustion engine, and it happened in 1841.
58 years later, a 17-seater omnibus was presented in St. Petersburg, equipped with a 4-horsepower electric motor with a power reserve of 64 km.
The next milestone in the history of electric vehicles dates back to the early 1930s. In 1931, the ingenious inventor Nikola Tesla, after purchasing electronic parts from an ordinary store, assembled a device which, when installed instead gasoline engine, could move the car out of place. The power of the unit was 80 liters. with.
Over the next 55 years, the technology remained largely unchanged. In 1996, the first production electric car rolled off the assembly line, which was developed by General Motors. However, this did not happen because of the will of the automaker or the demands of the market: in California alone, where GM cars were sold, a law was passed that toughened the requirements for cars: new cars, according to the authors of the bill, should not have polluted the environment at all. But very quickly it was canceled, because technically it was not possible to complete it at that time. General Motors has been producing electric cars for 7 years, but cannot boast of solid sales: during this period, just over 1,150 copies of the model were sold, which are still kept in private collections (the unsold ones were put under pressure) .
Today, the main popularizer of the idea of electric vehicles is Elon Musk, who bought Tesla Motors and began to develop it in earnest. The production Tesla Roadster, released in 2008, was on sale for 4 years, but due to the excessively high cost of $ 109,000, it was only accessible to the very wealthy. In 2012, the more affordable Model S car was released, which subsequently underwent two modernizations and was favorably received by experts and enthusiasts of ordinary cars.
2015 was marked by the release of the Model X: the crossover was distinguished by a large power reserve (from 354 to 539 kilometers, depending on the modification and other parameters), excellent dynamics (up to a hundred, the model can accelerate in 3.2 seconds), as well as many unusual functions, previously not used by other manufacturers (for example, interior lighting in rhythm with the music playing, etc.).
How modern electric vehicles work
An electric car, unlike a car with a conventional heat engine, does not need a complex engine with a considerable number of drawbacks (various problems during operation, complex repairs, noise during operation, etc.). The electric motor is completely silent and low on fuel, as electricity is the same all over the world.
Another advantage of electric vehicles is the absence of a gearbox, which greatly simplifies both operation and maintenance. Formally, there is a box, but all the power is supplied to the wheels at once, so that people in the cabin do not feel the inevitable jerks when changing gears.
A prerequisite for the operation of such a car is electricity, the power of which is stored in the battery. Most companies place it under the bottom, which on the one hand makes the cabin more spacious and on the other hand improves maneuverability.
Recently, global manufacturers have come to the conclusion that it is necessary to use a recovery system, which generates energy and then stores it in cases where the car moves by inertia, which increases range ( the same technology slows down vehicle movement after the driver takes their foot off the accelerator pedal).
Electric vehicle sales around the world
The fact that the future belongs to electric cars becomes obvious for all the big manufacturers in a hurry to get involved in the development and manufacturing process, until the gap with the competitors becomes too big: it exists today hui both economy models (KIA Soul EV) and brands linked to the premium segment (Audi E-Tron).
Tesla, despite producing the first electric car in demand, is struggling financially, which has prompted other automakers. As a result, over the past year the number of full-fledged models, and not concepts, has increased several times. Among the new market players there are both prominent companies with a well-known name like BMW, as well as many little-known Chinese developers.
In the development of electric cars, the following trends are currently observed:
1. Introduction of single pedal control. The pioneer in this field was Nissan Motor Co., Ltd. with the Leaf model. The idea took hold, and more and more companies are introducing technology in which braking will be performed using a regenerative system.
2. Increase the intelligence of electric vehicles (unmanned electric vehicles appear that do not need human actions).
3. Development by each company of its own unique platform, through which the buyer has the opportunity to become the owner of something truly new and unique.
In addition to fully electric cars, hybrids are in demand, that is, models that have both an electric motor and an internal combustion engine.
There are two types of hybrids:
1. without charging connector. These include the first generation Toyota Prius and a few other early hybrid cars. The battery is charged there exclusively thanks to the work of the recovery system;
2. with a connector to charge the battery. There is currently an absolute majority of these hybrids on the market. They are able to connect to external energy sources, which greatly simplifies the process of recharging the charge.
Despite the presence of an electric motor, hybrids cannot travel more than 50 km on electricity alone. If the internal combustion engine is involved, the power reserve increases to several hundred kilometers.
Disadvantages of electric vehicles
Electric cars are a developing mode of transportation, so they are not without drawbacks.
The main problem with electric vehicles that slow their proliferation is their high cost. When a way is found to establish mass production of batteries, the cost will go down, but so far the price factor is stopping many buyers who would not be afraid to give up an internal combustion engine car.
Another major drawback is the undeveloped infrastructure. If you can get to almost anywhere in the world by ordinary car, then a long trip by electric car becomes problematic. The number of charging stations is too small even in European countries. Today, the growth in electric car sales far exceeds the growth in the number of charging stations. The problem has yet another solution: it is important not only to develop a network of gas stations, but also to work on increasing the capacity of the batteries, which will allow to travel a greater distance without the need to recharge. .
Every now and then, even fans of electric vehicles have doubts about their environmental safety. The very use of electricity is absolutely harmless, but when it is generated, a huge amount of harmful substances is released into the atmosphere. Humanity has yet to find the opportunity to abandon the use of thermal power plants and switch to solar and wind power.